These last two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is saturated.
Thus ethane gives H3C CH2 CH3, propane; ethylene gives H 2 C:CH CH 3, propylene; and acetylene gives HC: C CH 3, allylene.
We derived this substance from ethane by introducing a meth y l group; hence it may be termed " methylethane."
In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.
The identity of the four valencies of the carbon atom follows from the fact that the heats of combustion of methane, ethane, propane, trimethyl methane, and tetramethyl methane, have a constant difference in the order given, viz.
Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.
If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 ï¿½CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 ï¿½CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 Cï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 Cï¿½ groups are split off and the two residues ï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.
Sir Edward Frankland,showed how it could be derived from, and converted into, ethane; and thus determined it to be ethane in which one hydrogen atom was replaced by a hydroxyl group. Its constitutional formula is therefore CH3ï¿½CH2.OH.
Molten copper absorbs carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulphur dioxide; it also appears to decompose hydrocarbons (methane, ethane), absorbing the hydrogen and the carbon separating out.
Paraffins, under the influence of heat, split up into simpler members of the same series and into olefines; and if we imagine the action in its simplest form, we should have the gases, as they were evolved, consisting of (say) ethane and ethylene.
Ethane, when heated to this degree, splits up into ethylene and hydrogen, whilst ethylene decomposes to methane and acetylene, and the acetylene at once polymerizes to benzene, styrolene, retene, &c. A portion also condenses, and at the same time loses some hydrogen, becoming naphthalene; and the compounds so formed by interactions amongst themselves build up the remainder of the hydrocarbons present in the coal tar, whilst the organic substances containing oxygen in the coal break down, and cause the formation of the phenols in the tar.
The chief unsaturated hydrocarbons present in coal gas are: ethylene, C2H4, butylene, C 4 H 8, acetylene, C 2 H 2, benzene, C 6 H 61 and naphthalene,C 10 H 8, and the saturated hydrocarbons consist chieflyof methane, CH 4, and ethane, C2H6.
Ethane, C 2 H 6, in a similar manner, can only give rise to one alcohol, namely ethyl alcohol, CH 3 CH 2 OH, which is also primary.
The compounds containing this radical are treated under other headings; the hydride is better known as ethane, the alcohol, C 2 H 5 OH, is the ordinary alcohol of commerce, and the oxide (C 2 H 5) 2 O is ordinary ether.
In the difference between C - C - C - C C-C-C and With this compound C 4 H 10, named butane, C isomerism is actually observed, being limited to a pair, whereas the former members ethane, C 2 H 6, and propane, C 3 H 8, showed no isomerism.