The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water content of pure borax (J.
Suggestion of Toscanelli, and under-estimating the diameter of the globe, by sailing due west.
In estimating the work of one who stands at the head of the religious and legal institutions of Israel, it is necessary to refrain from interpreting the traditions from a modern legal standpoint or in the light of subsequent ideas and beliefs for which the sources themselves give no authority.
In estimating Buchner's philosophy it must be remembered that he was primarily a physiologist, not a metaphysician.
There are no data for estimating Measures.
The grazier buys and sells cattle much less frequently than the butcher buys them, so that the latter is naturally more skilled in estimating the weight of a beast through the use of the eye and the hand.
A familiar practical method of estimating carcase weight from live weight is to reckon one Smithfield stone (8 lb) of carcase for each imperial stone (14 lb) of live weight.
In estimating the letterpress, which was avowedly held to be of secondary importance to the plates, we must bear in mind that, to ensure the success of his works, it had to be written to suit a very peculiarly composed body of subscribers.
But it did more than this; by the king's instructions it endeavoured to make a national valuation list, estimating the annual value of all the land in the country, (1) at the time of King Edward's death, (2) when the new owners received it, (3) at the time of the survey, and further, it reckoned, by command, the potential value as well.
Webs serve not only for pointing on stars to determine their coordinates (in manner afterwards described), but also for estimating the diameters of the star-images in terms of these 4" intervals.
A comparison of the various methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O.
Passing now to the examination of the budget, it should be observed that the method of estimating the revenues - a matter of great difficulty owing to the previous want of method - is described by Laurent as follows: " For every nature of receipts the total effective collections for the five last known years were set out, the averages were taken of these and the increase or decrease of the yearly average of those same years was worked out and added to or deducted from the figure previously obtained.
He suggested that the method was applicable for quantitatively estimating glucose, but its acceptance only followed after H.
From his views on centrifugal force he deduced the oblate figure of the earth, estimating its compression, however, at little more than one-half its actual amount.
A convenient and rapid method of estimating a magnetic moment has been devised by H.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
Yet we should remember, in estimating the value of this and of other speculations which have given place to new views in the history of science, the words of the great reformer himself.
The wave motion due to any element of the surface is called a secondary wave, and in estimating the total effect regard must be paid to the phases as well as the amplitudes of the components.
Further, it is evident that account must be taken of the variation of phase in estimating the magnitude of the effect at P of the first zone.
In estimating theoretically the resolving power on a double star we have to consider the illumination of the field due to the superposition of the two independent images.
Thus in estimating the intensity at a focal point, where, in the absence of aberration, all the secondary waves would have exactly the same phase, we see that an aberration nowhere exceeding 4X can have but little effect.
Chem-., 1905, 47, p. 1 45), who, by estimating the ratios of strontium bromide and chloride to silver, obtained the values 87.663 and 87.661.
There is a radical difference between the points of view of the Japanese and the Western connoisseur in estimating tbe Japanese merits of sculpture in metal.
In estimating this wonderful productiveness on the part of a man sixty years old, it should be remembered that it was a habit of Defoe's to keep his work in manuscript sometimes for long periods.
So certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at which mining is feasible.
"At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft."
To the atomist the true method of estimating the quantity of matter in a body is to count the atoms of it.
In estimating the great work of Herodotus, and his genius as its author, it is above all things necessary to conceive aright what that work was intended to be.
His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.
In the present day engineers are in accord as to the principles of estimating the magnitude of the stresses on the members of a structure, but not so in proportioning the members to resist those stresses.
I: Jahresb., 1849, 2231 by estimating the amount of carbon dioxide formed on burning graphite or diamond in a current of oxygen, the value obtained being 12.0 (o = 16).
In estimating the length of time occupied by this first missionary journey, it must be remembered that a sea voyage could never have been undertaken, and land travel only rarely, during the winter months, say November to March; and as the amount of the work accomplished is obviously more than could fall within the travelling season of a single year, the winter of 47-4 8 must have been spent in the interior, and return to the coast and to Syria made only some time before the end of autumn A.D.
But the essential narrowness and timidity of his general outlook prevented him from detecting and estimating latent forces, either in politics or in matters strictly intellectual and moral; and this lack of understanding and sympathy accounts for his distrust and dislike of the passion and fancy of Shelley and Keats, and for his praise of the half-hearted and elegant romanticism of Rogers and Campbell.
And, besides the propaedeutic importance which thus belongs to it, another fact has to be taken into account in estimating the influence of Neoplatonism.
No proper statistical basis for estimating the quotas existed, and the device gave each state a plausible reason for attempting secession on occasion.
The abundant vintage of that year drew his attention to the defective methods in use for estimating the cubical contents of vessels, and his essay on the subject (Nova Stereometria Doliorum, Linz, 1615) entitles him to rank among those who prepared the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus.
Represents "a small glass instrument for estimating the specific gravities of liquors," an account of which was promised by Boyle in the following number of the Phil.
On the whole, as Philo and Josephus agree in estimating their number at 4000 (Philo, Q.O.P.L.
Having a happy knack of estimating character, especially when acquainted with the histories of the persons in question, the good pastor contrived to write a graphic and readable book, but one much inferior to Porta's or Aristotle's as a systematic treatise.
The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.
Literary Records.In estimating the sources of information regarding pre-Christlan Egypt, the native sources, first opened to us by Champollion, are infinitely the most important.
The method of estimating the area of irregular fields and the cubic contents of granaries, &c., is very faulty.
In estimating this drama we must bear in mind Goethe's own Strassburg life, and the turbulent spirit of his own age, rather than the historical facts, which the poet found in the autobiography of his hero published in 1731.
The earlier forms of ice-calorimeter, those of Black, and of Laplace and Lavoisier, were useless for work of precision, on account of the impossibility of accurately estimating the quantity of water left adhering to the ice in each case.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
It was first employed in the case of steam by Peabody as a means of estimating the wetness of saturated steam, which is an important factor in testing the performance of an engine.
It should be understood that the instantaneous centre considered in the preceding paragraphs is available only for estimating relative velocities; it cannot be used in a similar manner for questions regarding acceleration.
The risks which they would have run if they had remained on board throughout are taken into account, as will presently appear, in estimating how much of the damage is to be made good.
Hence, in estimating the amount to be made good, the value of the goods or property sacrificed must be estimated as on arrival, with reference to the condition in which they would probably have arrived had they remained on board throughout the voyage.
For example, various sugars - lactose, glucose, saccharose, &c. - are added to test the fermentative action of the bacterium on these substances; litmus is added to show changes in reaction, specially standardized media being used for estimating such changes; peptone solution is commonly employed for testing whether or not the bacterium forms indol; sterilized milk is used as a culture medium to determine whether or not it is curdled by the growth.
In estimating the opsonic power of the serum in cases of disease a control with normal serum is made at the same time and under precisely the same conditions.
By adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to a solution of the sulphate in acetic acid a compound known as herapathite, 4Qu 3H 2 SO 4.2HI Ie6H 2 O, is obtained, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in Iwo parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively.
The neglect of these facts has led to many errors in estimating the mean rainfall on watershed areas from the fall observed at gauges in particular parts of those areas.
In estimating the evaporation to be deducted from the rainfall for the purpose of determining the flow into a reservoir, it is important to bear in mind that the loss from a constant water surface is nearly one and a half times as great as from the intermittently saturated land surface.
With further experience it has become obvious that very few reservoirs are capable of equalizing the full flow of the three consecutive driest years, and each engineer, in estimating the yield of such reservoirs, has deducted from the quantity ascertained on the assumption that they do so, a certain quantity representing, according to his judgment, the overflow which in one or more of such years might be lost from the reservoir.
Further, the trabeculae may be evenly spaced throughout the septum, or may be grouped together, and this feature is probably of value in estimating the affinities of corals.
The Penitentials 5 are collections intended for the guidance of confessors in estimating the penances to be imposed for various sins, according to the discipline in force in the Anglo =ten - Saxon countries.
He had his fathers faculty for gauging public opinion, and estimating dangers, and though his more venturous temperament led him to press on far beyond the point at which the seventh Henry would have halted, he always stopped short on the hither side of the gulf.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
In estimating the comparative advantages and disadvantages of this wearisome period of his life, he has summed up with the impartiality of a philosopher and the sagacity of a man of the world.
In estimating Brewster's place among scientific discoverers the chief thing to be borne in mind is that the bent of his genius was not characteristically mathematical.