The population of towns over 100,000 is given in the following table according to the estimates for 1906.
In 1904 official estimates, based on immigration and emigration returns and upon registered births and deaths, both of which are admittedly defective, showed a population increased to 5,410,028, and a small diminution in the rate of annual increase from 1895 to 1904 as compared with 18.69-1895.
Except in regard to an increase of the army estimates, urgently demanded by public opinion, the new ministry had practically no programme.
The following approximate figures are taken from the American Jewish Year-Book for1909-1910and are based on similar estimates in the English Jewish Year-Book, the Jewish Encyclopedia, Nossig's Jiidische Statistik and the Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
According to these estimates the total Jewish population of the world in the year named was approximately 11,500,000.
It is important to notice that the figures relating to total production and yield per acre are only estimates, and it is not claimed for them that they are anything more.
No very great reliance can be placed upon the figures relating to turnips (which include swedes), as these are mostly fed to sheep on the ground, so that the estimates as to yield are necessarily vague.
In the investigation of past times, the incommensurate elements of well-being are so numerous that merely money estimates are frequently misleading.
There was a slight decline of £300,000 in the total of these estimates; but this was merely a pause after the £12,000,000 increase of the past three years; and by the summer a new German navy law necessitated a supplementary estimate of about a million.
Once more a supplementary estimate, largely due to aircraft development, added two millions and a half; and in 1914 Mr. Churchill introduced the highest estimates hitherto on record, £51,J50,000 - an increase on the total of 1913 of some two millions and threequarters.
Meanwhile, he had thrown out, on the estimates of 1913, a hint to Germany that all naval Powers might well take a year's holiday from shipbuilding; but, though he repeated and emphasized his plea for this " naval holiday " in a speech in the autumn of 1913, it met with no response from Berlin.
He made considerable progress in the following two years, but he was greatly criticized for the size of his estimates, and especially for the large forces retained in Mesopotamia and Palestine.
West Virginia, estimates that in fairly good producing sand a cubic foot of rock contains from 6 to 12 pints of oil.
The agents of the finance ministry, instead of being mere clerks, are now employed in " the assessment and collection of taxes, the control of expenditure, the preparation and execution of the budget, the estimates of the necessary cash required at different points of the empire - all that, in fine, constitutes the real financial administration of a great empire."
The total revenues of the empire are thus estimated to produce 725,848,332, and seeing the careful and moderate manner in which the estimates have been framed, this may be looked upon rather as a minimum than a maximum.
It became clear that only very rough estimates of the numbers of planktonic organisms in a volume of sea-water as large as (say) 10 cubic metres could be made, but that these estimates could nevertheless be trusted to show very marked regional and seasonal differences.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
Nearly 20,000 men (40,000 according to other estimates) are living in Siberia the life of brodyagi (runaways or outlaws), trying to make their way through the forests to their native provinces in Russia.
The service of the national debt absorbs a very large part of the expenditure, about 45% of the estimates for 1907 being assigned to the department of finance.
Dan's estimates were always conservative.
In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
On the west the shore is perfectly flat, so that a slight rise in the water causes the inundation of a considerable area - a fact not without its influence on the estimates made at varying periods as to the size of the lake.
It should be noted that the figures for area and population are, as a rule, only estimates, but in most instances they probably approximate closely to accuracy.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
Whilst the returns relating to the acreage of crops and the number of live stock in Great Britain have been officially collected in each year since 1866, the annual official estimates of the produce of the crops in the several sections of the kingdom do not extend back beyond 1885.
Estimates are published of the area under cotton cultivation, and conditions of the American crop are issued by the American agricultural bureau at the beginning of the months of June, July, August, September and October of each year.
The results may be seen in the approximate estimates below of cotton grown more or less directly under the auspices of the association.
Discrepancies difficult to account for were found among the estimates of even the best observers.
The German immigration, of which so much has been written for political ends, has been greatly over-estimated; trustworthy estimates in 1906 made the German contingent in the population vary from 350,000 to 500,000.
Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.
On the 14th Dr Wekerle, at the ministerial conference assembled at Vienna for the purpose of discussing the estimates to be laid before the delegations, announced that the dissensions among his colleagues made the continuance of the Coalition government impossible.
On the 28th the Hungarian parliament adjourned sine die, pending the settlement of the crisis, without having voted the estimates for 1910, and without there being any prospect of a meeting of the delegations.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
Among critical estimates of Terence may be mentioned Sainte-Beuve's in Nouveaux lundis (3rd and 10th of August 1863), and Mommsen's in the History of Rome, book iv., chapter xiii.
Hubner estimates the mixed of all races at 93%, the highest among all the South American nationalities, and the creoles at 1% only; but this is clearly incorrect.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.
And, by the way, who estimates the value of the crop which nature yields in the still wilder fields unimproved by man?
They abused the police and bribed them, made out estimates at ten times their value for government stores that had perished in the fire, and demanded relief.
He drew up a scheme for the construction of a pier at Madras, to avoid the dangers of landing through the surf, and instructed his brother-in-law in England to obtain estimates from the engineers Brindley and Smeaton.
Very various are the estimates of Potemkin.