The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.
The latter was very attentive to Anna Pavlovna because he wanted to be appointed director of one of the educational establishments for young ladies.
The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, although the state university is not here but at Tubingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned.
Among the works of benevolence with which his name is associated are the establishment of a hospital for galley slaves at Marseilles.
Other conventions secure the exercise of the jurisdiction of the bishops in their diocese, and determine precisely their authority over seminaries and other ecclesiastical establishments of instruction and education, as well as over public schools, so far as concerns the teaching of religion.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Two important educational establishments are the Indian Institute for the education of civil service students for thecolonies, to which is attached an ethnographical museum; and the Royal Polytechnic school, which almost ranks as a university, and teaches, among other sciences, that of diking.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
The chief industrial establishments are a large ammunition factory and an engine factory; but manufactures of cotton, silk, velvet, pottery and paper, sugar-refining and tanning are also extensively carried on.
The lawfulness of Church Establishments with due qualifications is perhaps generally recognized in theory, but there is a growing tendency to regard connexion with the state as inexpedient, if not actually contrary to sound Presbyterian principle.
Whether run by steam, water-power or other motive forces, has played a great part in the promotion of industry; the increase in the amount of steam horse-power employed in industrial establishments is, to a certain degree, an index to the activity of the country as regards manufactures.
There are also reformatory establishments for juvenile offenders, and ddpDts de stireU for prisoners who are travelling, at places where there are no other prisons.
All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
The coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
In the provinces there are national schools of fine art and of music and other establishments and free subventioned schools.
In Oceania The members of these committees are un- New Caledonia and [N;S]paid, and have no concern with ways and Establishments in 00 means which are in the hands of a paid treasurer (receveur).
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
Among the educational establishments of the place must be mentioned the classical school (Gymnasium), founded in 1560, and a school of navigation.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College, which ranks high among English public schools.
Not until 1805, however, that the collection of establishments at Woolwich became the Royal Arsenal.
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
The principal buildings are: the Roman Catholic church, which was completed in 1851; the English church, the theatre, the Kurhaus, built in 1901, and several bathing establishments and hospitals.
Silkworm-rearinr establishments of importance now exist in the Marches, Umbria, in the Abruzzi, Tuscany, Piedmont and Venetia.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
The last named has succeeded, by means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the whole Italian market but an export trade.
Ihe great works of the Vatican are especially famous (more than 17,000 distinct tints are employed in their productions), and there are many other establishments in Rome.
From the general confiscation were exempted the buildings actually used for public worship, as episcopal residences or seminaries, &c., or which had been appropriated to the use of schools, poorhouses, hospitals, &c.; as well as the buildings, appurtenances, and movable property of the abbeys of Monte Casino, Della Cava dci Tirreni, San Martino della Scala, Monneale, Certosa near Pavia, and other establishments of the same kind of importance as architectural or historical monuments.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
These establishments are, however, unsatisfactory, being mostly situated on small islands, where it is often difficult to find work for the coatti, who are free by day, being only confined at night.
Of these, 31,219 were in lockups, 25,145 in penal establishments, 1837 minors in government, and 4547 in private reformatories, and 307!
There is an unlimited variety of work for the labouring convicts, and some of the establishments are on a large scale.
All the petty supervising establishments are composed of convicts.
Among the educational establishments is the State University, founded by King William I.
The establishments for dispensing medicines at Cordova, Toledo and other large towns under Arab rule, were placed under severe legal restrictions.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
In several university towns there are free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Of the manufacturing establishments in the state in 1900, 109, or 47.8%, were situated in Reno, Carson City and Virginia City, named in the order of their importance.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
The mission establishments were taken over in 1826 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which subsequently founded new stations in several parts of the district.
It is distinguished for the number of its churches and conventual establishments, although the latter have been closed.
Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.
The value of all manufactured products from establishments under the " factory system " in 1900 was $162,764,523; in 1905 it was $184,351,163.
In 1905 its establishments numbered 490.
Their product in 1900 was more than twice the product in 1890, and the product in 1905 (from establishments under the factory system only) was $50,298,290, i.e.
The staple silk industry (which dates from the 16th century) has declined, the number both of filande (establishments wherein the cocoons are unwound) and of filatoje (those wherein the silk is spun) having diminished.
In 1880 the capital invested in manufacturing industries was approximately $2,468,000; in 1890 it was $9,508,962; in 1900 it had increased to $16,045,156; and in 1905, when only establishments under the "factory system" were counted in the census, to $21,631,162.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
Among the geographical establishments of Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the highest rank.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
22 The Spaniards were prevented from forming establishments on the African coast by the Bull of Demarcation (" Inter caetera ") of Pope Alexander VI.
Trade was paralysed and all manufacturing establishments were closed down.
In that circle they discountenanced those who advised hurried preparations for a removal to Kazan of the court and the girls' educational establishments under the patronage of the Dowager Empress.