Descartes establishes a philosophic monotheism, - by which the medieval polytheism of substantial forms, essences and eternal truths fades away before God, who is the ruler of the intellectual world no less than of the kingdom of nature and of grace.
Extension and thought, the essences of corporeal and spiritual natures, are absolutely distinct, and cannot act upon one another.
These forms, when materialized, are called formae substantiales or formae nativae; they are the essences of things, and in themselves have no relation to the accidents of things.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
The argument about essences in the Metaphysics is as follows: - Since a separate individual, e.g.
Number in arithmetic, magnitude in geometry, stars in astronomy, a man's good in ethics; concentrates itself on the causes and appropriate principles of its subject, especially the definition of the subject and its species by their essences or formal causes; and after an inductive intelligence of those principles proceeds by a deductive demonstration from definitions to consequences: philosophy is simply a desire of this definite knowledge of causes and effects.
The mind, especially in mathematics, abstracts numbers, motions, relations, causes, essences, ends, kinds; and it over-abstracts things mentally separate into things really separate.
But reality consists only of individual substances, numerous, moving, related, active as efficient causes, passive as material causes, essences as formal causes, ends as final causes, and in classes which are real universals only as real predicates of individual substances.
For even nature does nothing in vain, but aims at final causes, which she uniformly realizes, except so far as matter by its spontaneity (Cure?) Tow atrop arov) causes accidental effects; and the ends of nature are no form of good, nor even the good of man, but the essences of natural substances themselves, and, above them all, the good God Himself.
But it is by a different process of sense, memory, experience, induction, intelligence, syllogism, that science becomes knowledge of real causes, of real effects, and especially of real essences from which follow real consequences, not beyond, but belonging to real substances.
Similarly, the universal essence of a species is not one and the same as each individual essence, but is the whole number of similar individual essences of the similar individuals of the species, e.g.
Hence again, the natural world of species and essences is not eternal, but only endures as long as there are individual substances.
Hence Schelling objected to the Hegelian dialectic on the ground that, although reason by itself can apprehend notions or essences, and even that of God, it cannot deduce a priori the existence either of God or of Nature, for the apprehension of which experience is required.
The panlogistic confusion of the essences of things with the notions of reason, to construct a positive philosophy without falling into fresh mysticism, which failed to exorcise the effect of his earlier philosophy of identity in the growing materialism of the age.
This involved a change of detail in the theory of essences and of universals generally.
The by-products of the citrus-essences, citrate of lime, &c. are also of some importance.
In Greek philosophy phenomena are the changing objects of the senses as opposed to essences (ra avra) which are one and permanent, and are therefore regarded as being more real, the objects of reason rather than of senses which are "bad witnesses."
We define essences of course in a sense, but the essences of which men talk are abstractions, " creatures of the understanding."
Man determines the sorts or nominal essences, nature the similitudes.
This first philosophy had also to investigate what are called the adventitious or transcendental conditions of essences, such as Much, Little, Like, Unlike, Possible, Impossible, Being, Nothing, the logical discussion of which certainly belonged rather to the laws of reasoning than to the existence of things, but the physical or real treatment of which might be expected to yield answers to such questions as, why certain substances are numerous, others scarce; or why, if like attracts like, iron does not attract iron.
Great part enumerated (I call them forms of the first class), and which (like the letters of the alphabet) are not many, and yet make up and sustain the essences and forms of all substances - this, I say, it is which I am attempting, and which constitutes and defines that part of metaphysic of which we are now inquiring."
Various experimenters, especially Fenn, have asserted that by engrafting an eye of one variety into the tuber of another, not only will adhesion take place but the new tubers will present great variety of character; this seems to be the case, but it can hardly be considered as established that the variations in question were the result of any commingling of the essences of the two varieties.
390, 1856), and added "chloroform, ether, essences, or benzine or benzole" to the list of solvents.
Most fruit essences now employed in confectionery are artificially prepared oils, especially is this the case with cheap confectionery (jams, marmalades, &c.) in which the artificial fruit esters to a large extent replace the natural fruity flavour.
The essences or forms - the intelligibilia which constitute the world of real knowledge - may be looked at in themselves (metaphysically), or as embodied in the things of sense (physically), or as expressing the processes of thought (logically).
Other industries include the manufacture of artificial flowers, wax-cloth, chemicals, ethereal oils and essences, beer, mineral waters, tobacco and cigars, lace, indiarubber wares, rush-work and paper, the preparation of furs and numerous other branches.
Inquiry still takes this shape, and when any part of Disraeli's career is studied, the laces and essences, the rings over gloves, the jewelled satin shirt-fronts, the guitareries and chibouqueries of his early days are never remote from memory.
There may be no rational grounds for the ancient dogma that the souls of the lower animals were imperishable, like the soul of man: this is, however, a problem which we are not called upon to discuss; and we may venture to conjecture that there may be immaterial essences of divers kinds, and endowed with various attributes and capabilities.