Among later residents commemorated is Edward Lloyd, who was the first person to show the value of esparto grass for the manufacture of paper, and thus started an industry which is one of the most important in Algeria.
The district is famous for its melons, and also produces wine, olives, wheat and esparto grass.
Local industries include the manufacture of coarse cloth, esparto fabrics, oil and flour.
From Cartagena the principal exports are metallic ores, esparto grass, wine, cereals and fruit.
Esparto grass, which grows freely in the vicinity, is the spartum, or Spanish broom, which gave the town its Roman designation of Carthago Spartaria.
Here we find open plant associations of Haifa or Esparto Grass (Stipa lenacissima) alternating with steppes of Chih (Artemisia herba-alba); and each plant association extends for several scores of miles.
Other thriving local industries include the manufacture of oil, soap, flour, leather, alcohol and esparto grass rugs.
Grapes, barley, esparto grass, dry figs, almonds and zinc are exported.
These central uplands of Tunisia in an uncultivated state are covered with alfa or esparto grass; but they also grow considerable amounts of cereals - wheat in the north, barley in the south.
The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.
It is the chief town of a wide district exporting olive oil, esparto', corn and flour, wools and Algerian onyx; and has a population of (1906) 24,060.
The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.
It imports general merchandise and manufactures, and exports phosphates, iron, zinc, barley, sheep, wool, cork, esparto, &c. There are manufactories of native garments, tapestry and leather.
The local trade is chiefly in coarse cloth, esparto fabrics, wine and farm produce.
ESPARTO, or Spanish Grass, Stipa tenacissima, a grass resembling the ornamental feather-grass of gardens.
Ships' cables of esparto, being light, have the quality of floating on water, and have long been in use in the Spanish navy.
Esparto leaves contain 56% by weight of fibre, or about ro% more than straw, and hence have come into requisition as a substitute for linen rags in the manufacture of paper.
Esparto may be raised from seed, but cannot be harvested for twelve or fifteen years after sowing.
For the processes of the paper manufacturer esparto is used in the dry state, and without cutting; roots and flowers and stray weeds are first removed, and the material is then boiled with caustic soda, washed, and bleached with chlorine solution.
Sundry experiments have been made to adapt esparto for use in the coarser textile fabrics.
Proctor in 1877 directed attention to the composition of the slag resulting from the burning of esparto, which they found to be strikingly similar to that of average medical bottle glass, the latter yielding on analysis 66.3% of silica and 25.1% of alkalies and alkaline.
Behind the Tell is a lofty table-land with an average elevation of 3000 ft., consisting of vast plains, for the most part arid or covered with esparto grass, in the depressions of which are great salt lakes and swamps (Arabic, shats) fed by streams which can find no outlet to the sea through the encircling hills.
The flora of the high plateaus consists chiefly of grasses, notably various kinds of alfa or esparto, and aromatic herbs.
South of Arzeu, one of the capitals of Abd-el-Kader, and serves to bring down from the high plateaus their rich crops of esparto grass.
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
In the Sud Oranais an insurrection, fomented by a marabout named Bu-Amama, broke out in 1881, and the insurgents massacred the European labourers engaged in the collection of alfa (or esparto) grass.
The dwarf-palm, orange, lime, and olive grow in the warmer tracts; and on the higher grounds the thorn-apple, pomegranate, myrtle, esparto and heaths flourish.
Coal and coke are largely exported, and corn, timber and esparto grass are imported.
Lead is obtained among the mountains, and the more sheltered valleys produce grain, wine, oil, fruit and esparto grass.
Yecla has a thriving trade in the grain, wine, oil, fruit and esparto grass produced in the surrounding country.
Esparto grass, rice, olives, the sugar-cane, and tropical fruits and vegetables are largely produced.
Cieza is built in a narrow bend of the Segura valley, which is enclosed on the north by mountains, and on the south broadens into a fertile plain, producing grain, wine, olives, raisins, oranges and esparto grass.
A different aspect is presented by the grass steppes of Murcia, La Mancha, the plateaus of Guadix and Huescar in the province of Granada, &c., all of which are covered chiefly with the valuable esparto grass (Macrochloa tenacissinla).
In most cases such wheels merely have earthenware pitchers attached to their circumference by means of wisps of esparto, and are turned by a horse harnessed to a long arm fitted to a revolving shaft.
Among the vegetable products not yet mentioned the most important are the mulberry, grown in almost all provinces, but principally in those bordering on the Mediterranean, and above all in Valencia, the chief seat of the Spanish silk production and manufacture; tobacco, which is also imported, hemp and flax, grown chiefly in Galicia and other northern provinces; among dye-plants, madder, saffron, woad (Isatis tinctoria), and wild woad or dyers weed (Reseda luteola); ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), grown for their oil, for the preparation of which the nuts are exported in considerable quantity to France; liquorice, cummin, colocynth, &c. Esparto, chiefly from the arid lands of the south-east, is largely exported to Great Britain.
The esparto is twisted into cords and ropes and the staple matting so common on the floors of Spanish houses of all classes, the estera.
Tenacissima is the Spanish esparto grass (q.v.), known in North Africa as halfa or alfa.
The exports are minerals, esparto, oil, grain, grapes and farm produce generally.
About 1400 ships, of nearly i,000,000 tons, enter the port every year, bringing fuel and timber, and taking cargoes of iron, lead, esparto and fruit.
It is the chief outlet for the Spanish trade in esparto grass, and for the iron ore and other mineral products of the neighbourhood.
Of Oran) by the line from Arzeu to Saida and Ain Sefra which serves the high plateau whence esparto is obtained.
The export trade is chiefly in esparto grass, cereals, wines, olive oil, marbles, cattle and hides.