It may be grown as an espalier, like a fruit tree, and this will protect it from winds, or it may be trained against a wall.
It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding.
The summer pruning of established wall or espalier-rail trees consists chiefly in the timely displacing, shortening back, or rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so that the winter pruning, in horizontal training, is little more than adjusting the leading shoots and thinning out the spurs, which should be kept close to the wall and allowed to retain but two or at most three buds.
Fig, i represents a garden of one acre and admits of nearly double the number of trees on the south aspect as compared with the east and west; it allows a greater number of espalier or pyramid trees to face the south; and it admits of being divided into equal principal compartments, each of which forms nearly a square.
- Subsidiary to walls as a means of training fruit trees, espalier rails were formerly much employed, and are still used in many gardens.
The forms chiefly adopted for trees trained to walls and espalier rails are the fan-shaped, the half-fan and the horizontal, with their various modifications.
- Continue the pruning and training of wall and espalier trees, and the destruction of noxious insects.