The 116 Eskimo dogs were landed.
In the north part of the east coast, in the region of Scoresby Fjord and Franz Josef Fjord, numerous ruins of Eskimo settlements are found, and in 1823 Clavering met Eskimo there, but now they have either completely died out or have wandered south.
And met the only Eskimo ever seen in this part of Greenland.
The Eskimo dog has small, upright ears, a straight bushy tail, moderately sharp muzzle and rough coat.
It is doubtful whether the Eme-sal was ever really a woman's language similar in character to that of the Carib women of the Antilles, or that of the Eskimo women of Greenland.
In 1895 Peary found native iron at Cape York; since John Ross's voyage in 1818 it has been known to exist there, and from it the Eskimo got iron for their weapons.
Thus, the Eskimo are said to believe in spirits of the sea, earth and sky, the winds, the clouds and everything in nature.
This seems a less feasible explanation; it is more probable that the Norse settlers intermarried with the Eskimo and were gradually absorbed.
Only occasionally there emerge lofty rocks, isolated but not completely covered by the ice-cap; such rocks are known as nunataks (an Eskimo word).
The Eskimo on Bering Sea had learned to model shallow bowls for lamps.
The white whale fishery of the Eskimo, however, continued, and sealing is important; walruses are also caught and sometimes narwhal.
In addition there are generally from twenty to several hundred Eskimo, who live in huts built ' of stone and turf, each entered by a short tunnel.
The Shoshoni, Shahaptin and Salish tribes are of middle stature; on the coast of British Columbia, Puget Sound, in Oregon, and northern California, are the shortest of all the North Americans save the Eskimo, while among them, on the Columbia, are taller tribes.
Pieces of bone, stone, shell, &c., were worn as ornaments in the lip (Latin, labrum) or cheek by Eskimo, Tlinkit, Nahuatlas and tribes on the Brazilian coast.
Commencing in the Arctic region, the Eskimo in his kayak, consisting of a framework of driftwood or bone covered with dressed sealskin, could paddle down east Greenland, up the west shore to Smith Sound, along Baffin Land and Labrador, and the shores of Hudson Bay throughout insular Canada and the Alaskan coast, around to Mount St Elias, and for many miles on the eastern shore of Asia.
The Eskimo engraved poorly, the Dene (Tinneh) embroidered in quill, the North Pacific tribes carved skilfully in horn, slate and cedar, the California tribes had nimble fingers for basketry, the Sioux gloried in feathers and painted parfleche.
The reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington cover the Eskimo, east and west, and all the tribes of the United States.
The Dene (Tinneh) myths resembled those of the Eskimo, and all the hunting tribes of eastern Canada and United States and the Mississippi valley have a mythology based upon their zootechny and their totemism.
Two facts are established - namely, that the Eskimo lived formerly farther south on the Atlantic coast, and that, aboriginally, they were not specially adept in carving and etching.
Such a generalization will become sounder, if, as is now generally done by anthropologists, the Eskimo with their pyramidal skulls, dull complexion and flat noses are removed into a division by themselves.
Unless by its mineral resources, of which scarcely anything is known, the barren grounds can never support a white population and have little to tempt even the Indian or Eskimo, who visit it occasionally in summer to hunt the deer in their migrations.
It was common to those tribes east of the Rocky Mountains, in the south-west and upper Columbia; but unknown apparently among the Eskimo, along the northwest coast, and on the Pacific coast west of the Cascade range and the Sierras, except among some few Californian tribes, or here and there in Mexico and southward.
This iron needed no tempering, and the Celts had probably found it ready smelted by nature, just as the Eskimo had learned of themselves to use telluric iron embedded in basalt.
The exploration of Greenland has been continued, with few exceptions, by Danes who, besides throwing much light on problems in physical geography and Eskimo ethnography, have practically completed the map of the coasts.
On April 6 1912, accompanied by P. Freuchen and two Eskimo, he set out with dog sledges from Inglefield Gulf to cross the inland ice in search of E.
Of Greenland was found to extend nearly to the coast: consequently the hunting grounds are poor and there are few traces of Eskimo migration.
And a week later Bartlett, accompanied by an Eskimo and his crew and seven dogs, set out for the mainland, 160 m.
The Pomeranian dog is a close ally of the Eskimo breed and was formerly used as a wolfdog, but has been much modified.
Each of the inspectorates is divided into districts, each district having, in addition to the chief settlement or coloni, several outlying posts and Eskimo hunting stations, each presided over by an udligger, who is responsible to the colonibestyrer, or superintendent of the district.
The prices to be paid for European and native articles are fixed every year, the prices current in Danish and Eskimo being printed and distributed by the government.
It holds two sessions every year, and the discussions are entirely in the Eskimo language.
The Eskimo population of Danish Greenland (west coast) seems to have decreased since the middle of the 18th century.
A little tribe of Eskimo living in the region of Cape York near Smith Sound - the so-called " Arctic Highlanders " or Smith Sound Eskimo - number about 240.
But somewhat later they have probably met with the Eskimo farther north on the west coast in the neighbourhood of Disco Bay, where the Norsemen went to catch seals, walrus, &c. The Norse colonists penetrated on these fishing expeditions at least to 73° N., where a small runic stone from the 14th century has been found.
In the beginning of the 12th century Greenland got its own bishop, who resided at Garolar, near the present Eskimo station Igoliko, on an isthmus between two fjords, Igaliksfjord (the old Einarsfjord) and Tunugdliarfik (the old Eriksfjord), inside the present colony Julianehaab.
When in 1585 John Davis visited it there was no sign of any people save the Eskimo, among whose traditions are a few directly relating to the old Norsemen, and several traces of Norse influence.'
They are occupied by a small tribe of about 80 Eskimo, who have from early times plied the trade of middlemen between Asia and America.
The eastern Eskimo are dolichocephalic, the western are less so, and the Aleuts brachycephalic. On the North Pacific coast, and in spots down to the Rio Grande, are short heads, but scattered among these are long heads, frequent in southern California, but seen northward to Oregon, as well as in Sonora and some Rio Grande pueblos.
22, North American sub-race; tall, mesocephalic. 23, Central American race; short, brachycephalic. 24, Patagonian race; tall, brachycephalic. 25, Eskimo race; short, dolichocephalic.
P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.
The warrior painted the story of conflicts on his robe only in part, to help him recount the history of his life; the Eskimo etched the prompters of his legend on ivory; the Tlinkit carved them on his totem post; the women fixed them in pottery, basketry, or blankets.
The Eskimo lifted his weighted boat with sheer-legs made of two paddles; he also had a tackle without sheaves, formed by reaving a greased thong through slits cut in the hide of a walrus.
The Eskimo underground houses of sod Hablta- and snow, the Dene (Tinneh) and Sioux bunch of bark.
Kroeber, Papers on Eskimo, Arapaho, Languages and Culture of California Tribes, in Pubs.
Rasmussen considered it very doubtful if Eskimo ever succeeded in reaching the E.
Stefansson, who was nominally a member of the expedition, spent his time with the Eskimo in the Mackenzie delta, learning their habits and language in order to equip himself for future explorations.
Anderson were studying the Eskimo in and around Victoria I., where they discovered the so-called blonde Eskimo, who had never previously encountered white men.
He lived in Eskimo fashion using only Eskimo diet, which enabled him to travel light and avoid the necessity of falling back on a base for supplies.
Stefansson, My Life with the Eskimo (1913), and R.
The Eskimo dog has been regarded as nothing more than a reclaimed wolf, and the Eskimo are stated to maintain the size and strength of their dogs by crossing them with wolves.
It has been supposed that they were destroyed by attacks of the Eskimo, who about this period seem to have become more numerous and to have extended southwards along the coast from the north.
Nansen, Eskimo Life (London, 1893).
The Hare Indian dog of the Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie river is more slender, gentle and affectionate than the Eskimo dog, but is impatient of restraint, and preserves many of the characters of its wild ally, the coyote, and is practically unable to bark.
Their services to their owners and to Arctic explorers are well known, but Eskimo dogs are so rapacious that it is impossible to train them to refrain from attacking sheep, goats or any small domesticated animals.