The attribution of a mystic significance to the millennium-period, though perhaps not prominent in that theory of Christian eschatology to which the names Millenarianism and Chiliasm (from Gr.
The contributions of the Old Testament to Christian eschatology embrace these features: "(I) The manifestation or advent of God; (2) the universal judgment; (3) behind the judgment the coming of the perfect kingdom of the Lord, when all Israel shall be saved and when the nations shall be partakers of their salvation; and (4) the finality and eternity of this condition, that which constitutes the blessedness of the saved people being the Presence of God in the midst of them - this last point corresponding to the Christian idea of heaven" (A.
The individual hoped that he would live to share the nation's good, and thus the two streams of Old Testament eschatology at last flow together.
The eschatology of the New Testament attaches itself not only to that of the Old Testament but also to that of contemporary Judaism, but it avoids the extravagances of the latter.
(b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.
2; see his Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian.
On the special department of eschatology the standard works are R.
Charles, Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian, and Schwally, Das Leben nach dem Tode, as well as Gressmann's suggestive work Der Ursprung der israelitisch jiidischen Eschatologie, which contains, however, much that is speculative.
This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
It was considered a sufficient safeguard against the spiritualizing eschatology of Origen and his school to have rescued the main doctrines of the creed and the regula fidei (the visible advent of Christ; eternal misery and hell-fire for the wicked).
See also Eschatology and works there quoted.
Also in eschatology, as may be expected, a change took place.
The eschatology of a nation - and the most influential portion of Jewish and Christian apocrypha are eschatological - is always the last part of their religion to experience the transforming power of new ideas and new facts.
The eschatology is similar to that taught in the similitudes of the Book cf Enoch.
It is characteristic of the prophetic eschatology that images suggested by one prophet are adopted by his successors, and gradually become part of the permanent scenery of the last times; and it is a proof of the late date of Joel that almost his whole picture is made up of such features.
Cannot be assigned to the same authorship. The hopes of the Messiah are confined to the former, and a somewhat different eschatology underlies the two works.
- The earliest form of Pauline eschatology is essentially Jewish.
Rather under the influence of the great formative Christian conceptions he parted gradually with the eschatology he had inherited from Judaism, and entered on a progressive development, in the course of which the heterogeneous elements were for the most part silently dropped.
The kind of eschatology which we find in Zech.
Selected from the Pentateuch, &c.; the eschatology is interesting.
In its ultimate form the Messianic hope of the Jews is the centre of the whole eschatology, embracing the doctrine of the last troubles of Israel (called by the Rabbins the "birth pangs of the Messiah"), the appearing of the anointed king, the annihilation of the hostile enemy, the return of the dispersed of Israel, the glory and world-sovereignty of the elect, the new world, the resurrection of the dead and the last judgment.
For Alexandria little can be urged save a certain strain of "Alexandrine" idealism and allegorism, mingling with the more Palestinian realism which marks the references to Christ's sufferings, as well as the eschatology, and recalling many a passage in Philo.
It is not at all improbable that Jewish eschatology in its later developments was powerfully influenced by the Persian faith.
The p p p p eschatology of the Old Testament is thus closely connected with, but not limited by, Messianic hope, as there are eschatological teachings that are not Messianic. As the Old Testament revelation is concerned primarily with the elect nation, and only secondarily (in the later writings) with the individual persons composing it, we follow the order of importance as well as of time in dealing first with the people.
In dealing with the individual eschatology we must carefully distinguish the popular ideas regarding death and the hereafter which Israel shared with the other Semitic peoples, from the intuitions, inferences, aspirations evoked in the pious by the divine revelation itself.
This belief in individual immortality is expressed poetically and obscurely: it is later than the eschatology of the people.
It is in the apocryphal and apocalyptic literature of Judaism that the fullest development of eschatology can be traced.
Eschatology was universalized (God was recognized as the creator and moral governor of all tic the world), individualized (God's judgment was directed, not to nations in a future age, but to individuals in a future life), transcendentalized (the future age was more and more contrasted with the present, and the transition from the one to the other was not expected as the result of historical movements, but of miraculous divine acts), and dogmatized (the attempt was made to systematize in some measure the vague and varied prophetic anticipations).
Peculiar elements in Paul's eschatology are the doctrines of the Rapture of the Saints (1 Thess.
The Gnostics rejected this eschatology as in their view the enlightened spirit already possessed immortality.
The eschatology of 2 Macc. is singularly advanced, for it combines the doctrine of a resurrection with that of immortality.
Its eschatology and doctrine of "divine forgiveness" may point to an earlier date.
The Messianic doctrine and eschatology of this section is unique.
The most important of those which have been published are: a treatise on eschatology called Ad-durra ul fakhira (" The precious pearl"), ed.
Even eschatology lies quite in the background.
Eschatology has again and again expressed the alliance between ethics and religion.
What was said above of the Christology of the Petrine speeches applies to the whole conception of Messianic salvation, the eschatology, the idea of Jesus as equipped by the Holy Spirit for His Messianic work, found in these speeches, as also to titles like " Jesus the Nazarene " and " the Righteous One " both in and beyond the Petrine speeches.
His Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement (1865) and Catholic Eschatology and Universalism (1876) are standard works.
This Iranian dualism is proved to have penetrated into the late Jewish eschatology from the beginning of the ist century before Christ, and did so probably still earlier.
Then in the West the period arrived in which eschatology, and above all the expectation of the coming of Antichrist, exercised a great influence on the world's history.
The primitive Christian eschatology was preserved in the West as it was not in the East, and in times of exceptional distress the expectation of Antichrist emerged again and again.