From the valleys their rugged, deeply indented escarpments, stretching away to the horizon, have the appearance of a continuous chain of mountains.
The southern frontier is formed by the escarpments which separate the Niger basin from those of the coast rivers of Liberia.
It first flows in a valley bounded, especially towards the west, by the escarpments of a high plateau, and containing the towns of Lugh (in 3° 50' N., the centre of active trade), Bardera, 387 m.
From Guantanamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments, a.nd W.
Food fishes are relatively not abundant, presumably because the deep sea escarpments of the N.
Through these gorges dash magnificent cascades, others leaping the escarpments of the plateaus in waterfalls of great volume and depth.
On the east the limit of the Uganda Protectorate in 1901 was the thalweg of Lake Rudolf and a line drawn from the south-eastern coast of that lake south along the edge of the Laikipia and Kikuyu escarpments to the frontier of German East Africa.
There are other lower escarpments in the plateau province, similar in form and cause to the Helderberg escarpment.
To 113 ° E., until it strikes against or merges in the steep escarpments of the S.E.
The eastern escarpments (the Drakensberg, &c.) of the plateau intercept the rain-bearing winds from the Indian Ocean, so that over the greater part of the interior the rainfall is slight (5 to 24 in.).
Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
The development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a great extent by two unfavourable conditions-by the chain of mountains or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the settlements along the Atlantic, which compel 1 The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at Gotha and used by A.
The rocks at the base of the slopes are granite, the upper escarpments are of sedimentary rocks.
The Nan-shan highlands abut upon the highlands of the Chinese province of Kansuh, and near the great northward bend of the Hwang-ho they meet the escarpments by which the Great Khingan and the In-shan ranges are continued, and by which the Mongolian plateau steps down to the lowlands of China.
The longest and most prominent of these ranges, which are for the most part the eastern escarpments of the great Brazilian plateau, is the Serra dos Aymores, which extends along fully two-thirds of the western frontier.
The surface is formed of cement moulded over metal gimmel-work, and arranged to form ledges and boulders, peaks and escarpments, and faced with coloured sand and paint.
The town, which occupies an important strategic position in the plain dominated by the escarpments of Mount Tessala, has barrack accommodation for 600o troops, and is the headquarters of the ter regiment etranger, one of the two regiments known as the Foreign Legion.
The border of this part of the plateau descends eastward by a single strong escarpment to the Hudson valley, from which the mountains present a fine appearance, and northward by two escarpments (the second being called the Helderberg Mountains) to the Mohawk Valley, north of which rise the Adirondacks; but to the south west the dissected highland continues into Pennsylvania and Virginia, where it is commonly known as the Alleghany plateau.
Again, in Kentucky and Tennessee, there is a double alternation of sandstone and limestone in the plateau-making strata; and as the skyline of the plateau bevels across these formations, there are west-facing escarpments, made ragged by mature dissection, as one passes from the topographically strong sandstone to the topographically weak limestone.
The plains are by no means a simple unit; they are of diverse structure and of various stages of erosional development.
The results of the first cycle of erosion are seen in the widespread exposure of the resistant Carboniferous limestone as a broad platform in the south-western area of greater uplift through central Arizona, where the higher formations were worn away; and in the development of a series of huge, south-facing, retreating escarpments of irregular outline on the edges of the higher formations farther north.
Associated with these irregular escarpments are occasional rectilinear ridges, the work of extensive erosion on monoclinal structures, of whick Echo Cliffs, east of the Painted Desert (so called from its manycoloured sandstones and clays), is a good example.
With the renewal of uplift by which the earlier cycle of erosion was interrupted and the present cycle introduced, inequalities of surface due to renewed faulting were again introduced; these still appear as cliffs, of more nearly rectilinear front than the retreating escarpments formed in the previous cycle.
There are no true mountain ranges in Maranhao, those indicated on the maps being only plateau escarpments marking either its northern margin or the outlines of river valleys.
The sub-species polytrophus from the Kikuyu Escarpments also has the planemoides and cenea forms and another form trimeni, which is intermediate between the unmodified female of antinorii and hippocoon, and like the latter is mimetic of Amauris niavius dominicanus.
Oases.In the western desert lie the five large oases of Egypt, namely, Siwa, Baharia, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga or Great Oasis, occupying depressions in the plateau or, in the case of the last three, large indentations in the face of limestone escarpments which form the western versant of the Nile valley hills.
In Scotland the rocks have been so dislocated and disturbed as to prevent the formation of continuous escarpments, and this form of rock-scenery is consequently almost entirely absent, except locally and for the most part on a comparatively small scale.
The most extensive Scottish escarpments are found among the igneous rocks.
Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.
Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.
The general character of the landscape in the Eastern Division is a succession of steep escarpments formed by the edges of the outcropping beds of harder rock, and long gentle slopes or plains on the dip-slopes, or on the softer layers; clay and hard rock alternating throughout the series.
Of the harder rocks forming escarpments, the sheets of clay forming plains; and on this account similar features are repeated in each of the successive geological formations.
To the strike, and cutting through opposed escarpments by deep valleys, and those following the line of strike along a bed of easily eroded rock.
The low escarpments of the harder beds of the Lias are the real, though often scarcely perceptible, boundary between the Triassic plain and the Jurassic belt.
Steep towards the west, where it overlooks the low Lias plain as the Oolitic escarpment, the land falls very gently in slopes of Oxford Clay towards the Cretaceous escarpments on the south and east.
The rivers from the gentle southern slopes of the Oolitic heights pass by deep valleys through the Chalk escarpments, and flow on to the Tertiary plains within.
The sheet of Chalk shows its cut edges in the escarpments facing the centre of the Weald, and surrounding it in an oval ring, the eastern end of which is broken by the Strait of Dover, so that its completion must be sought in France.
The main roads laid out as arteries of intercommunication by the Romans, suffered to fall into neglect, and revived in the coaching days of the beginning of the 19th century, fell into a second period of comparative neglect when the railway system was completed; but they have recovered a very large share of their old importance in consequence of the development of motortraffic. Following the Roman roads, the high roads of the Eastern Division very frequently run along the crests of ridges or escarpments; but in the Western Division they are, as a rule, forced by the more commanding relief of the country to keep to the river valleys and cross the rougher districts through the dales and passes.
The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the colour of the rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the Pink Cliffs (highest), White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs.
Rather broad, smooth valleys, well degraded hills with rounded summits, and - despite the escarpments - generally smooth contours and sky-lines, characterize the whole of this Ozark region.
2 Both the Ozark region and the prairie region are divided by minor escarpments into ten or twelve sub-regions.
These plains slope gently toward the east, those of the Amazon basin apparently lying in great terraces whose escarpments have the character of low, detached ranges of hills forming successive rims to the great basin which they partly enclose.
A special characteristic of the Yemen highlands is that fields and inhabited sites are found at the highest elevations, the mountain-tops forming extensive plateaux, often scarped on every side and only accessible by difficult paths cut in the cliffs which encircle them like the escarpments of a natural fortress; a remarkable example of this is Jebel Jihaf on the Aden border, 8000 ft.