Another range, or escarpment, crosses the state from east to west, but is broken into two principal divisions, each having several local names.
West of where the escarpment dies out, the Great Valley Region and a considerable portion of the Appalachian Mountains Region are drained by the Coosa, the Tallapoosa and their tributaries, into Mobile Bay, but the Cumberland Plateau, like that part of the Appalachian Mountains Region which lies directly N.
On the Blue Ridge escarpment near the, N.E.
Each escarpment stands forth where a resistant formation overlies a weaker one; each escarpment is separated from the next higher one by a broad step of weaker strata.
Their northern border is marked by an escarpment of Soo to 700 ft.
The entire region is very much dissected by streams, and the topography is characteristically of a terrace and escarpment type.
By a bold escarpment 500 to 1000 ft.
It climbed gently along the escarpment above the river and was devoid of traffic.
Of these the most notable is the Niagara escarpment which extends eastward from Canada, past Lewiston and Lockport, - a downward step from the Erie to the Ontario plain, where the Niagara limestone outcrops, and its resistance to denudation accounts for the steeply rising face at the boundary between the two plains.
Escarpment of the high veld and the watershed between the Vaal and Limpopo.
The western cross timbers follow a sandy belt along the inner base of the ragged escarpment of Grand Prairie; the eastern cross timbers follow another sandy belt in the lowland between the eastern~ slope of Grand Prairie and the pale western escarpment of the next eastward and lower Black Prairie cuesta.
The surface is shown to be a plain of degradation by a gradual ascent here and there to the crest of a ragged escarpment, the cuesta-remnant of a resistant stratum; and by the presence of lava-capped mesas and dike-ridges, surmounting the general level by 500 ft.
On the east it is strongly undercut by the retrogressive erosion of the headwaters of the Red, Brazos and Colorado rivers of Texas, and presents a ragged escarpment, 500 to 800 ft.
Of the Blue Ridge escarpment, constitutes a part of the Tennessee Basin.
The Niagara escarpment mentioned above, generally called "the mountain" in Ontario, is the cause of waterfalls on all the rivers which plunge over it, Niagara Falls being, of course, the most important; and in most cases these falls have eaten their way back into the tableland, forming deep gorges or canyons like that below Niagara itself, through which the water pours as violent rapids.
Adrar occupies the most elevated part of a plateau which ends westwards in a steep escarpment and falls to the east in a succession of steps.
In the east part of the state is the magnificent Sierra Nevada, a great block of the earth's crust, faulted along its eastern side and tilted up so as to have a gentle back slope to the west and a steep fault escarpment facing east, the finest mountain system of the United States.
In localities the slope is a true escarpment falling 150 and even 250 ft.
Face of the Blue Ridge Escarpment, which rises precipitously1200-1500ft.
The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south.
The low ground between it and the shore, and between the Niagara escarpment and the water on the Canadian shore, is a celebrated fruit growing district, covered with vineyards, peach, apple and pear orchards and fruit farms. The Niagara river is the main feeder of the lake; the other largest rivers emptying into the lake are the Genesee, Oswego and Black from the south side, and the Trent, which discharges into the upper end of the bay of Quinte, a picturesque inlet 70 m.
The bofindary between the mountains and the piedmont belt is called the Blue Ridge all along its length; and although the nan:e is fairly appropriate in northern Virginia, it is not deserved in the Carolinas, where the ridge is only an escarpment descending abruptly 1000 or 1500 ft~ from the valleys of the mountain belt to the rolling uplands of the piedmont belt; and as such it is a form of unusual occurrence.
The border of this part of the plateau descends eastward by a single strong escarpment to the Hudson valley, from which the mountains present a fine appearance, and northward by two escarpments (the second being called the Helderberg Mountains) to the Mohawk Valley, north of which rise the Adirondacks; but to the south west the dissected highland continues into Pennsylvania and Virginia, where it is commonly known as the Alleghany plateau.
As in all such forms, the Niagara cuesta has a relatively strong slope or infacing escarpment on the side towards the oldland, and a long gentle slope on the other side.
When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.
By a resistant Cretaceous limestone, which dips gently seaward; its scalloped inland-facing escarpment overlooks a denuded central prairie region of irregular structure and form; its gentle coastward slope (16 ft.
In the great lacustrine depression of Nicaragua is collected all the drainage from the eastern versant of the volcanic mountains, from the sheer western escarpment of the main cordillera, and from a large area of northern Costa Rica.
The Ek-tagh or Mongolian Altai, which separates the Kobdo basin on the north from the Irtysh basin on the south, is a true border-range, in that it rises in a steep and lofty escarpment from the Dzungarian depression (1550 to 3000 ft.), but descends on the north by a relatively short slope to the plateau (4000-5500 ft.) of north-western Mongolia.
The Ridge, famous as the British base during the siege of Delhi during the Mutiny, in 1857, is a last outcrop of the Aravalli Hills which rises in a steep escarpment some 60 ft.
The Dexter Creek Road departed from the highway a few miles north of town and climbed sharply up the eastern escarpment of the valley.
The Piedmont Plateau Region extends from this line to the Blue Ridge Escarpment, toward which its mean elevation increases at the rate of about 32 ft.
The cliffs on the east shore of Green Bay form a bold escarpment, and from this ridge the land slopes gradually to the lake.
Thus the Ektagh Altai is a true border-rangethat is, a lofty and steep escarpment facing the Dzungarian depression, with a gentle and relatively short slope towards the plateau.
The heaviest rain is experienced between January and April and is usually accompanied by severe thunderstorms. On the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg the rainfall is heavy, 50 or 60 in.
Other auriferous reefs are found all along the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg and are worked in the De Kaap (Barberton) district, on the Swaziland frontier, in the Lydenburg district, in the Murchison Range and in other places in the Zoutpansberg.
HELM WIND, a wind that under certain conditions blows over the escarpment of the Pennines, near Cross Fell from the eastward, when a helm (helmet) cloud covers the summit.
On the crest of the highest ridge in the eastern rift-valley between the Kikuyu escarpment on the east and the Mau escarpment on the west.
The escarpment of the Coteau du Missouri is the dividing line, that portion to the N.
The greater kudu, almost unknown elsewhere in East Africa, inhabits the flanks of the Laikipia escarpment to the east of the lake and comes to the foot-hills around Baringo to feed.
The remainder and greater part of the county is occupied chiefly by the gently inclined Old Red Sandstone; in the dissected plateau of the Black Mountains north of Crickhowell the lower marls and cornstones are laid open, while south of Brecon the conglomeratic upper beds form the escarpment and plateaus of the Beacons.
In the midst of this series there is an inconstant band of fossiliferous limestone, which has been found in the Wadi Nasb and at other places on the southern border of et-Tih, and also along the western escarpment of the Edom plateau.
On the eastern escarpment of the oasis on the way to Girga are the remains of a large Roman fort with twelve bastions.
From the sea this plateau escarpment has the appearance of a range of flat topped hills closely following the coast line.
Wenlock Edge, running from south-west to north-east, is an escarpment of Silurian limestone, while the broad upland of Long Mynd, nearly parallel to it on the north, is a mass of Archaean rock.
Almost continuous plain with the belt of Lias clays, which is the outer border of the Eastern Division; for although a low escarpment marks the line of junction, and seems to influence the direction of the main rivers, there is only one plain so far as regards free movement over its surface and the construction of canals, roads and railways.
In almost every case the plain along the foot of an escarpment bears a line of villages and small towns, and on a good map of density of population the lines of the geological map may be readily discerned.
The great feature of the region is the long line of the Oolitic escarpment, formed in different places by the edges of different beds of rock.
The escarpment runs north from Portland Island on the English Channel, curves north-eastward as the Cotteswold Hills, rising abruptly from the Severn plain to heights of over Iwo ft.; it sinks to insignificance in the Midland counties, is again clearly marked in Lincolnshire, and rises in the North Yorkshire moors to its maximum height of over 1500 ft.
The western escarpment of the plateau rises steeply from the Red Sea littoral to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft., leaving a narrow belt of lowland rarely exceeding 30 m.
The mountain chain, too, is less distinctly marked, and becomes little more than the seaward escarpment of the plateau which intervenes between the coast and the Hadramut valley.
This formation is really an escarpment facing the lower Mohawk and the Hudson river S.
Of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
Above the surrounding country, and called the Manitoba escarpment, because the greater part of it lies in the province of Manitoba.
The remainder of the state which lies east of the Tennessee river is divided into the Highland Rim Plateau and a lowland basin, eroded in the Highland Rim Plateau and known as the Blue Grass Region; this region is separated from the Highland Rim Plateau by a semicircular escarpment extending from Portsmouth, Ohio, at the mouth of the Scioto river, to the mouth of the Salt river below Louisville; it is bounded north by the Ohio river.
The Highland Rim Plateau, lying to the south, east and west of the escarpment, embraces fully one-half of the state, slopes from elevations of1000-1200ft.
Down the steep slopes of the escarpment the Highland Rim Plateau drops 200 ft.
On the escarpment around the Blue Grass Region the soils are for the most part either cherty or stiff with clay and of inferior quality.
The border of the plateau on the south-east is an abrupt escarpment, eroded where the folded structure of the mountain belt reveals a series of weaker strata; but in the north-west the plateau suffers only a gradual decrease of height and of relief, until the prairie plains are reached in central Ohio and southern Indiana and Illinois, about 150 m.
The most significant stage in this series of changes occurred when the glacio-marginal lake wateis were lowered so that the long cuesta of Niagara limestone was laid bare in western New York; the previously confluent waters were then divided into two lakes; the higher one, Erie, supplying the outfiowing Niagara river, which poured its waters down the escarpment of the cuesta to the lower lake, Ontario, whose outlet for a time ran down the Mohawk Valley to the Hudson: thus Niagara falls began.
The Blue Ridge escarpment, a striking topographic feature in Virginia and the Carolinas, extends into Georgia along the north-eastern border of this belt, but is less strongly developed here than elsewhere, dying out entirely towards the south-west.
Wide), connected with the Caribbean Sea by a long, narrow, winding channel with rocky escarpment walls, in places less than 200 yds.
The south-western part is naturally divided into two tracts by the Niagara escarpment, a line of cliffs capped by hard Silurian limestones, running from Queenston Heights near the falls of Niagara west to the head of Lake Ontario near Hamilton, and then northwest to the Bruce Peninsula on Georgian Bay.
The coal-fields on the eastern side, from the Tyne nearly to the Trent, are sharply marked off on the east by the outcrop of Permian dolomite or Magnesian limestone, which forms a low terrace dipping towards the east under more recent rocks, and in many places giving rise to an escarpment facing westward towards the gentle slope of the Pennine dales.