In diameter to a height of 125-150 ft., and the eruption lasts 4-41 minutes.
Formerly, on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater often spouted forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of vapour, but in modern times this action has usually been followed by a fracture of the mountain side from the summit down to a point moo ft.
Tambora, forming a minor peninsula east of Sumbawa Bay, is said to have lost a third of its elevation in the eruption of 1815, but is still 9055 ft.
At the beginning of the Christian era, and for many previous centuries, no eruption had been known to take place from the mountain, and the volcanic nature of the locality was perhaps not even suspected by the inhabitants who planted their vineyards along its fertile slopes, and built their numerous villages and towns around its base.
Percy Smith, The Eruption of Tarawera (New Zealand, 1887).
According to an account of the natives, a violent eruption of Kilauea occurred in 1789, or about that time, and deposits of volcanic sand, large stones, sponge-like scoria (pumice) and ashes for miles around are evidence of such an eruption.
After a repose of about two centuries the Nevado de Chinn broke out in eruption early in 1861 and caused great destruction.
Of Rotorua) is noted for the eruption of June 1886, which changed the outline of several lakes, destroyed the famous Pink and White terraces on the adjoining lake Tarawera, and converted a region of great beauty into a desolate wilderness.
By the end of the 15th century n he mountain had resumed much the same general aspect as it is resented before the eruption described by Pliny.
Since its first historical eruption in AD.
In 1886 there was a serious volcanic eruption in the outlying island of Nivafoou, and at the same time Falcon Reef, normally awash at high water, discharged sufficient scoriae and pumice to form a new island 50 ft.
Two other states on the northern extremity of the island were so far devastated by the Tambora eruption of 1815 that their territory, after lying for long uninhabited, was in 1866 divided between Dompo and Sangar.
Above sea-level (in June 1900, 4275 ft., but after the eruption of 1906 considerably less).
The central lake, during the periods of eruption (which are frequent), displays a geyser-like activity.
An eruption in 1783, with a deluge of lava, destro~ed an extensive forest and overwhelmed several villages.
He describes an eruption of Vesuvius in connexion with the last days of the Elder Pliny (vi.
The catastrophe has been explained as a volcanic eruption, or an explosive outburst of gas and oil stored and accumulating at high pressure.
Above it rises the fourcratered volcano of Pacaya (8390 ft.), which was in eruption in 1870.
The most uncommon natural feature of the district, the Pink and White Terraces, was blown up in the eruption of Mount Tarawera in 1886, when for great distances the country was buried beneath mud and dust, and a chasm 9 m.
Turialba (10,910), adjoining Irazu on the east, was in eruption in 1866.
Near the coast in the state of Vera Cruz is San Martin, or Tuxtla (9708 ft.), which has been quiescent since its violent eruption of the 2nd of March 1 793.
The eruption ceased in 1863, but broke out again in 1864.
In the eruptions of 1823, 1832, 1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater rose on the eve of an eruption and then sank, sometimes hundreds of feet, with the discharge of lava; but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before 1868, in 1855) this action has been confined to Halemaumau and such other pits as at the time existed.
Of the new, was completely destroyed by .an eruption of the volcano in 1814 (about 1200 people being killed), and the new town was almost entirely destroyed by the insurgents in February 1900, an ancient stone church of much beauty (in what was formerly Daraga) being left standing on an elevated site commanding a view of the surrounding country.
It is singular that, while we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two letters of the younger Pliny (Epist.
Deep. The whole of this superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from 18 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials may be divided generally into two distinct strata, the one consisting principally of cinders and small volcanic stones (called in Italian lapilli), and the other and uppermost layer of fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such as dead bodies, woodwork, &c.), like clay or plaster of Paris.
LICHEN (lichen Tuber), in medical terminology, a papular disease of the skin, consisting of an eruption in small thickly set, slightly elevated red points, more or less widely distributed over the body, and accompanied by slight febrile symptoms.
The island was perhaps occupied by Greek settlers even before Cumae; its Eretrian and Chalcidian inhabitants abandoned it about Soo B.C. owing to an eruption, and it is said to have been deserted almost at once by the greater part of the garrison which Hiero I.
Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.
By a colossal eruption, of which no historical record remains, the upper half of the cone was blown away.
T intervals, varying from a few weeks or months to a few years, has broken out into eruption, sometimes emitting only steam, ist and scoriae, but frequently also streams of lava.
Vesuvius (q.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been slumbering for unknown ages, suddenly burst into violent eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii under dense beds of cinders and ashes.
This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy.
Colima was in a state of eruption as late as 1909, Jorullo (4262 ft.) is said to date from 1759, when its cone was formed, and Ceboruco (7100 ft.) in the territory of Tepic, shows occasional signs of activity.
Poas (8895), the scene of a violent eruption in 1834, begins a fresh series of igneous peaks, some with flooded craters, some with a constant escape of smoke and vapour.
The building up of these domes of lavas of intermediate chemical type was followed by the eruption of sheets of andesites and rhyolites in the Thames English Miles so Ioo 200 Cretaceous 'a '
The Elder Pliny inspired his nephew with something of his own indomitable industry; and in August 79, when the author of the Historia naturalis lost his life in the famous eruption of Vesuvius, it was the sister of the Elder and the mother of the Younger Pliny who first descried the signs of the approaching visitation, and, some twenty-seven years later, it was the Younger Pliny who wrote a graphic account of the last hours of his uncle, in a letter addressed to the historian Tacitus (vi.
Eruption in 1905, when the main crater was enlarged to a length of 3000 ft.
The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.