PAUL ERMAN (1764-1851), German physicist, was born in Berlin on the 29th of February 1764.
He was the son of the historian Jean Pierre Erman (1735-1814), author of Histoire des refugies.
His son, GEORG ADOLF ERMAN (1806-1877), was born in Berlin on the 12th of May 1806, and after studying natural science at Berlin and Konigsberg, spent from 1828 to 1830 in a journey round the world, an account of which he published in Reise urn die Erde durch Nordasien and die beiden Ozeane (1833-1848).
His son JOHANN PETER ADOLF ERMAN (1854-), a famous Egyptologist, was born in Berlin on the 31st of October 1854.
For an account of the Egyptological work of Erman and his school, see EGYPT: Language.
A similar body, with a title corresponding to 4LAot, is found in ancient Egypt (Erman, Ancient Egypt, Eng.
The journeys of Hansteen and Erman (1828-1830) were a most important step in the exploration of the territory.
This plain diaphanous garment, without distinction of colour (white, red or yellow), and with perhaps only an embroidered hem at the top, was worn by the whole nation, princess and peasant, from the IVth to the XVIIIth Dynasties (Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 212).
Whether for ordinary or for special occasions a great variety of costume prevailed, and several types can be distinguished among both sexes (Erman, pp. 207 seq., 213 sqq.; see fig.
Palestinian captives, 10th century) to a fourfold 2 Erman, 226 sqq., cf.
But the appendage of the official was shorter than that of the king, and the gods had a distinctive shape for themselves; if it appears upon the dead it is because they in their death had become identified with the god Osiris (Erman, 59, 225 sq.).
That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
Erman Life in Ancient Egypt (1894, especially pp. 200-233); for Egyptian evidence, see W.
See Erman, Egyptian Religion; Budge, Gods of the Egyptians; Meyer, in Zeits.
Such scholars as Lepsius, Brugsch, de Rouge, Lenormant, Birch, Mariette, Maspero and Erman have perfected the studies of Young and Champollion; while at the same time these and a considerable company of other explorers, most notable of whom are Gardner Wilkinson and Professor Flinders Petrie, have brought to light a vast accumulation of new material, much of which has the highest importance from the standpoint of the historian.
In ancient Egyptian cultus the priest, after he has solemnly saluted the gods, begins the daily toilet of the god, which consists in sprinkling his image, clothing it with coloured cloths, and anointing it with oil (Erman, Die aegyptische Religion, p. 49).
See Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Religion (London, 1907); Ed.
Ebers, Egypt, Descriptive, Historical and Picturesque, translated from the erman edition of 1879 by Clara Bell, new edition, 2 vols.
Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, translated by H.
Erman contains spells to be used by mothers for the protection of their children.
Erman, Die agyptische Religion (Berlin, 1905); and chapters 2 and 3 in G.
In 1880 Ludwig Stern (Koptische Grammatik) admirably classified the grammatical forms of Coptic. The much more difficult task of recovering the grammar of Egyptian has occupied thirty years of special study by Adolf Erman and his school at Berlin, and has now reached an advanced stage.
What was even then practically a dead language, as dead as Latin was to the medieval monks in Italy who wrote and spoke it, Erman selected for special investigation those texts which really represented the growth of the language at different p~riods, and, as he passed from one epoch to another, compared and consolidated his results.
At this point a papyrus of stories written in the popular language of the Middle Kingdom provided Erman with a stepping-stone from Old Egyptian to the Late Egyptian of the Neuagyptische Grammatik, and gave the connections that would bind solidly together the whole structtire of Egyptian grammar (see Sprache des Papyrus Westcar, 1889).
The subject has been reviewed by Erman, Die Flexion des dgyptischen Verbums in the Sitzngsberlchte of the Berlin Academy, 1900.
On the other hand, Egyptian is certainly related to Semitic. Even before the triliterality of Old Egyptian was recognized, Erman showed that the so-called pseudoparticiple had been really in meaning and in form a precise analogue of the Semitic perfect, though its original employment was almost obsolete in the time of the earliest known texts.
See Erman, Das Verhltnis d.
Gram., 1898; Erman, Flexion d.
As a possible explanation of the facts, Erman supposes that a horde of conquering Semites, like the Arabs of a later day, imposed their language on the country, but disappeared, being weakened by the climate or absorbed by the native population.
The above, with the relative forms mentioned below, are supposed by Erman to be derived from the participle, which is placed first for emphasis: thus, t~mw tIn, hearing is the king; 1dm-f, for fdm-fy, hearing he is.
Have been adopted by the Berlin school, including Erman, Steindorif (in Baedekers xxix Egypt) and Breasted in America.
3 Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Religion (1907), pp. 8, 12.
Erman, Reise urn die Erde iii., (Berlin, 1848); C. von Ditmar, Reisen and Aufenthalt in Kamchatka in den Jahren 1851-1855 (1890-1900); G.