The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
Rashki), a river which rises south of Erzerum, in the Bingeul-dagh, and flows east through the province of Erzerum, across the Pasin plateau, and then through Russian Armenia, passing between Mount Ararat and Erivan, and forming the Russo-Persian frontier.
Long; its principal tributary is the Zanga, which flows by Erivan and drains Lake Gokcha or Sevanga.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
Transcaucasia supplies, chiefly from the government of Erivan, some 12,000 tons of raw cotton annually.
The greatest recorded range of temperature is at Erivan (altitude 3230 ft.), namely, of 64° between a January average of 14.9° and an August average of 78.8° F.
Large numbers of mulberry trees are planted for rearing silkworms, especially in Kutais, Erivan, Elisavetpol (Nukha) and Baku (Shemakha); the groves occupy nearly 150,000 acres, and the winding of the silk gives employment to large numbers of the population.
From Tiflis, nearly midway on this last line, a railway proceeds south as far as Erivan (234 m.), with a branch to Kars (48 m.).
The Erivan line is being continued into Persia, namely, to Tabriz via Julfa on the Aras.
Many of the oil wells at Baku were burned, and massacres took place at that town, at Shusha, at Erivan, at Tiflis, at Batum, at Jebrail and at other places.
Gumri), a Russian town and fortified camp in Transcaucasia, government of Erivan, near the junction of the Arpa-chai with the Aras, 48 m.
Tchihatchef mentions that at Erivan in Russian Armenia the mean winter temperature is 7 0.1 C. and falls in January to - 30° C., and at Bokhara the mean temperature of January is 4° C. and the minimum -22° C., and yet at both places the vine is grown with success.
ANI (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Harpasus) and a deep ravine.
There is more than one meaning of Erivan discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Erivan, Russia (Government) >>
IVAN FEDOROVICH PASKEVICH (1782-1856), count of Erivan, prince of Warsaw, Russian field marshal, descended from an old and wealthy family, was born at Poltava on the 19th (8th) of May 1782.
In reward of his services he was named by the emperor count of Erivan, and received a million of roubles and a diamondmounted sword.
J7~5 ~ It shows, during the reign of the Safawids, Tiflis, Erivan, Khoi and Bagdad to have been within the limits of Persia on the west, and in like manner Balkh and Kandahar to have been.
Dividing an army of 6o,ooo men into three corps, he sent one of these into Daghestan, another was to attack Erivan, and with the third he himself laid siege to Shusha in the province of Karabakh.
Erivan surrendered, but Shusha continued to hold out.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.
In the following year Abbas Mirza advanced upon Shishah, the chief of which place and of the Karabagh had declared for Russia; much fighting ensued, and Erivan was formally taken possession of in the name of the shah.
But Russia demanded Erivan and Nakhichevan as well as the cost of the war; and in 1827 the campaign was reopened.
Briefly, after successive gains and losses, not only Erivan was taken from Persia but Tabriz also, and finally, through the intervention of Sir John Macdonald, the English envoy, a new treaty was concluded at Turkmanchai, laying down the boundary between Russia and Persia.
Among the hard conditions for the latter country were the cession in perpetuity of the khanates of Erivan and Nakhichevan, the inability to have an armed vessel in the Caspian, and the payment of a war indemnity of some 3,000,000.
At the expiration of four months the sirdar of Erivan took possession of a Turkish military station on the road to Erzerum, and the crown prince marched upon that city at the head of 30,000 men.
Among the remarkable occurrences may be noted the murder at Teheran in 1828 of M - Grebayadov, the Russian envoy, whose conduct in forcibly retaining two women of Erivan provoked the interference of the mullas and people.
The kings choice, however, fell on Hajji Mirza Aghasi, a native of Erivan, who in former years, as tutor to the Sons of Abbas Mirza, had gained a certain reputation for learning and a smattering of the occult sciences, but whose qualifications for statesmanship were craftiness and suspicion.
It thus includes the governments of Baku, Elisavetpol, Erivan, Kutais and Tiflis; the provinces of Batum, Daghestan and Kars; and the military districts of the Black Sea (Chernomorsk) and Zakataly.
(6) The mountain Tatars (about 850,000), divided into many tribes and of an origin still undetermined, are scattered throughout the provinces of Baku, Erivan, Tiflis, Kutais, Daghestan, and partly also of Batum.
NAKHICHEVAN, or Nakhjevan, a city of Russian Armenia, in the government of Erivan, 85 m.
On the 12th of September 1812, he started with two Armenian servants, crossed the Araxes, rode from Tabriz to Erivan, from Erivan to Kars, from Kars to Erzerum, from Erzerum to Chiflik, urged on from place to place by a thoughtless Tatar guide, and, though the plague was raging at Tokat (near Eski-Shehr in Asia Minor), he was compelled by prostration to stop there.
In 1897 there were 970,656 Armenians in Russia, of whom 827,634 were in the provinces of Erivan, Elisavetpol and Tiflis.
In 1639, the province of Erivan, which included Echmiadzin, was assigned by treaty to Persia, and it remained in her hands until it passed to Russia, 1828, under the treaty of Turkman-chai.