The chief cleruchies of Pericles are: Thracian Chersonese (453-452), Lemnos and Imbros, Andros, Naxos and Eretria (before 447); ' Brea in Thrace (446); Oreus (445); Amisus and Astacus in the Black Sea (after 440); Aegina (431).
Corinth, Chalcis, Eretria and Miletus, Aegina founded no colonies.
He came finally to Eretria, and, with the help of the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naxos, whom he afterwards made ruler of that island, he passed over to Attica and defeated the Athenian forces at the battle of Pallenis or Pellene.
In addition to researches at Sicyon, Plataea, Eretria and elsewhere, it has undertaken two works of capital importance - the excavation of the Argive Heraeum and of ancient Corinth.
Antony repeatedly made Athens his headquarters and granted her several new possessions, including Eretria and Aegina - grants which Octavian subsequently revoked.
MENEDEMUS, Greek philosopher, and founder of the Eretrian school of thought, was born at Eretria about 350 and died between 278 and 275 B.C. Though of noble birth, he worked as builder and tentmaker until he was sent with a military expedition to Megara, where, according to Diogenes Laertius, he heard Plato and resolved to devote himself to philosophy.
He was subsequently a pupil first of Stilpo and then of Phaedo of Elis, whose school he transferred to Eretria, by which name it was afterwards known.
His son, of the same name, was appointed (490), together with Datis, to take command of the expedition sent by Darius to punish Athens and Eretria for their share in the Ionian revolt.
Gradually individual cities which had formed part of the Athenian empire returned to their alliance with Athens, until the Spartans had lost Rhodes, Cos, Nisyrus, Teos, Chios, Mytilene, Ephesus, Erythrae, Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Eretria, Melos, Cythera, Carpathus and Delos.
Some time in that year Tenedos, Chios, Chalcis in Euboea, and probably the Euboean cities Eretria, Carystus and Arethusa gave in their adherence, followed by Perinthus, Peparethus, Sciathus and other maritime cities.
Philoctetes was also the subject of tragedies by Achaeus of Eretria, Euphorion of Chalcis and the Roman tragedian Accius.
After the disaster of Eretria (see Peloponnesian War), which caused the fall of the extremists and the institution of a government of " 5000 " (i.e.
With the help of these allies Chalcis engaged the rival league of its neighbour Eretria in the so-called Lelantine War, by which it acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief city of the island.
This plain, which intervenes between Chalcis and Eretria, and was a fruitful source of contention to those cities, is the most considerable of the few and small spaces of level ground in the island, and was fertile in corn.
The only site which has attracted archaeologists is that of Eretria, which was excavated by the American School of Athens in 1890-1895.
- The history of the island is for the most part that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, the latter of which was situated about 15 m.
It was in consequence of the aid which the people of Miletus lent to the Eretrians on this occasion that Eretria sent five ships to aid the Ionians in their revolt against the Persians (see IoNiA); and owing to this, that city was the first place in Greece proper to be attacked by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 B.C. It was utterly ruined on that occasion, and its inhabitants were transported to Persia.
Eretria, like its neighbour Chalcis, early entered upon a commercial and colonizing career.
The interference of Eretria in the Ionian revolt (498) brought upon it the vengeance of the Persians, who captured and destroyed it shortly before the battle of Marathon (490).
Under Macedonian and Roman rule Eretria fell into insignificance; for a short period under Mark Antony, the triumvir, it became a possession of Athens.
Eretria was the birthplace of the tragedian Achaeus and of the "Megarian" philosopher Menedemus.
A few well-turned lines which have been preserved from Lycophron's tragedies show a much better style; they are said to have been much admired by Menedemus of Eretria, although the poet had ridiculed him in a satyric drama.
It existed for a very short time and was then transferred by Menedemus to Eretria, where it became known as the Eretrian school.
Some graves were opened at Eretria in Euboea in 1915.
Nevertheless, Darius left European Greece to itself, till the support accorded to the ronian and Carian insurgents by Athens and Eretria (499 B.C.) made war inevitable.