Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
Hence we frequently meet with forms which had passed out of the language that was spoken at the time they were engraved, side by side with their equivalents in that language.
The " molecules organiques " are physical equivalents of Leib nitz's " monads."
The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.
To the gramme-equivalents or gramme-molecules of the reacting substances, or to some multiples of them.
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
Wollaston as early as 1814 to deal only with " equivalents," i.e.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
The bases upon which Gerhardt and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use.
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.
He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of " molecular or mechanical types " containing substances which, although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially different in characters.
The two French painters who bore these names are also called by the Italian equivalents Giacomo (or Jacopo) Cortese and Guglielmo Cortese.
Now this ratio is the same as that which gives the relative chemical equivalents of hydrogen and copper, for r gramme of hydrogen and 31.8 grammes of copper unite chemically with the same weight of any acid radicle such as chlorine or the sulphuric group, SO 4.
During the first centuries both branches of the Church had used vestments substantially the same, developed from common originals; the alb, chasuble, stole and pallium were the equivalents of the anxItinov, e t fvoXcov, copapcov and 1 The rationale is worn only over the chasuble.
The depreciation and unstable character of the paper currency render it difficult to give a clear statement of receipts and expenditures for a term of years, the sterling equivalents often showing a decrease, through a fall in the value of the milreis, where there has been an actual increase in currency returns.
In this period the increase in the sterling equivalents would be proportionately greater than that of the currency values.
Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).
If the former, then their names are surely to be read as Sumerian, while, if they were Semites, the signs with which the names are written are probably to be read according to their Semitic equivalents, though we may also expect to encounter Semites bearing genuine Sumerian names.
The Egyptian equivalents of six characters have been made out by the aid of bilingual cartouches.
In such literature we find the characteristic words or their equivalents: "Seal up the prophecy: it is not for this generation," which are designed to explain the late appearance of the works in which they are found.
Near Luang Prabang, just beyond the border, in French territory, limestones with Productus and Schwagerina, like the Productus limestone of the Indian Salt Range, have been found; also red clays and grauwacke with plants similar to those of the Raniganj beds; and violet clays with Dicynodon, supposed to be the equivalents of the Panche series of India.
147, gave alternative dates, Phamenoth 25, Pharmuthi 25, Pharmuthi 1q; that is, according to the fixed Alexandrine calendar of B.C. 26, 21st March, 20th April, 14th April; in the older, not wholly superseded, Egyptian calendar the equivalents with Roman days varied from year to year.
Elias of Nisibis), medicine (Galen) and cosmetics (Cleopatra), in ready-reckoners (Didymus), clerk's (katib's) guides, and like handbooks, and in indirect explanations of the equivalents of measures mentioned by authors (e.g.
Both of these theories therefore are rather working equivalents than original derivations; or at least the interrelation was allowed to become far from exact.
With a duplicate weight of "2.") (Metric Equivalents, King's Printers (1898).
-- The metric equivalents of the units of the metric system in terms of the imperial system, as recalculated in 1897, are as follows: -
The equivalents of the Russian weights and measures, in terms also of the imperial and metric weights and measures, were re-calculated in 1897.
Table of the Principal Foreign Weights and Measures now in use, and of their Equivalents in Imperial or in Metric Weights and Measures.
In the East Indies rape oil and its equivalents, known under various names, are the most important of oils for native use.
Akerblad, a Swedish orientalist attached to the embassy in Paris, identified the proper names of persons which occurred in the demotic text, being guided to them by the position of their equivalents in the Greek.
Many remarkable In the articles referring to matters of Egyptology in this edition, Graecized forms of Old Egyptian names, where they exist, are commonly employed; in other cases names are rendered by their actual equivalents in Coptic or by analogous forms. Failing all such means, recourse is had to the usual conventional renderings of hieroglyphic spelling, a more precise transcription of the consonants in the latter being sometimes added.
The only native work on the writing that has come to light as yet is a fragmentary papyrus of Roman date which has a table in parallel bite, &c. columns of hieroglyphic signs, with their hieratic equivalents and words written in hieratic de d ~ scribing them or giving their values or mean- woo ree ings.
Rocks of Cambrian age have not been identified elsewhere in Scotland, though it may ultimately be shown that the quartzites and limestones of the Central Highlands are equivalents of those of the north-west coast.
Some greenish sandstones containing recognizable and characteristic fossils are the equivalents of the Upper Greensand of the south of England.
Many different alloys have been suggested, some including silver, nickel, zinc or arsenic; but that which has practically been found best is an alloy of four equivalents of copper to one of tin, or the following proportions by weight: copper 252, tin 117.8.
52.3); all that he does is to turn the discussion into the form of a dialogue, to adapt it to Roman readers by illustrations from Roman history, and to invent equivalents for Greek technical terms. This is equally true of the political treatises.
Of sandstones, clay-slates and limestones, which contain Cambrian fossils and are the equivalents of a part of the Sinian system of China.
Of the resolution of the various forms of inference into their equivalents in that grouping of terms or premises which was most obviously cogent, was a legacy of the Topics.
Farther south, around the old lands of Languedoc, equivalents of the two upper divisions of the Cambrian have been recorded; and the uppermost members of the system appear in Herault.
He tried to find equivalents for Paganini's effects, transcribed his violin caprices for the piano, and perfected his own technique to an extraordinary degree.
But the form of the sentences in B eeda's prose shows a close adherence to the parallelistic structure of Old English verse, and the alliterating words in the poem are in nearly every case the most obvious and almost the inevitable equivalents of those used by Bwda.
The primitive notion that perhaps comes nearest to our " sacred," whilst it immediately underlies the meanings of the Latin sacer and sanctus, is that of a taboo, a Polynesian term for which equivalents can be quoted from most savage vocabularies.
The expressions "Chaldaea r" and "Chaldaeans" are frequently used in the Old Testament as equivalents for "Babylonia" and "Babylonians."
Besides these, certain oleaginous plants, the suf, nuc and selite (there are no European equivalents for the native names), and the ground-nut are largely grown.
Uncertainty in regard to the value of the peso led the compiler to omit the equivalents in U.S. gold, but according to foreign trade returns these totals represent gold values, which at 4s.
The linear equivalents of the above equations in the following manner.
Every year, since 1854, has been printed a collection of pontifical acts, Acta Pii IX., Acta Leonis XIII., &c., which are the equivalents of the Bullarium.
The French equivalents are pli, plissement, ridement; in Germany, Falte, Faltung, Sattelung are the terms usually employed.
It is dedicated to Cornelianus, a man of literary tastes, and one of the imperial secretaries, who had invited the author to undertake the work; It is a collection of current words and forms which deviated from the Old Attic standard, the true Attic equivalents being given side by side.