If the surface of the globe had been symmetrically divided into sea and land, and these had been distributed in bands bounded by parallels of latitude, the character of vegetation would depend on temperature alone; and as regards its aggregate mass, we should find it attaining its maximum at the equator and sinking to its minimum at the poles.
The trade-wind regions correspond pretty closely with westward-flowing currents, while in the equatorial calm belts there are eastward-running countercurrents, these lying north of the equator in the Atlantic and Pacific, but south of the equator in the Indian Ocean.
The scale of that map, as determined by the equator or centre meridian, we will suppose to be i: 125,000,000, while the encircling meridian indicates a scale of i: 80,000,000; and a " mean " scale, equal to the square root of the proportion which the area of the map bears to the actual area of a hemisphere, is r: 112,000,000.
On the "Casco" (1888) and the Equator (1889) (1900).
Is only from 3 2.2° to 32.7° F., and the same low temperature continues throughout the Brazil Basin to the equator; but in the North American Basin from the West Indies to the Telegraph Plateau no satisfactory bottom temperature lower than 35.6° F.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.
The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert.
Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.
The parallels or climata 2 drawn through places, of which the longest day is of equal length and the decimation (distance) from the equator is the same, he maintained, ought to have been inserted at equal intervals, say of half an hour, and the meridians inserted on a like principle.
Following Hipparchus he divided the equator into 360 drawing his prime meridian through the Fortunate Islands (Canaries).
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
In January 1815 Portuguese subjects were prohibited from prosecuting the trade north of the equator, and the term after which the traffic should be everywhere unlawful was fixed to end on the 21st of January 1823, but was afterwards extended to February 1830; England paid £300,000 as a compensation to the Portuguese.
Ambriz was, previously to 1884, the northernmost point of Africa south of the equator acknowledged as Portuguese territory.
South of the magnetic equator the south end of the needle is always inclined downwards, and there is a spot within the Antarctic Circle (148° E.
The cold south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator, and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a tempo da friagem (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the upper Amazon region.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
After the division and cleavage of the chromosomes of the original nucleus have taken place they pass from the equator to the poles of the spindle, rearranging themselves close to the separated centrosomes to form daughter nuclei.
This deflecting force is directly proportional to the velocity and the mass of the particle and also to the sine of the latitude; hence it is zero at the equator and comes to a maximum at the poles.
The bottom water is relatively rich in these substances as well as in decaying organic matter, and would become progressively richer but for the slow drift towards the equator and the welling-up of bottom water to the surface in these latitudes.
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
At places north of this line, which is called the magnetic equator, the north end of the needle points downwards, the inclination generally becoming greater with increased distance from the equator.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
Prevail right northwards across the equator into the Bay of Biscay, showing a steady rise of bottom temperature as successive submarine elevations restrict communication with 'the Antarctic. On the other hand, in the more open Argentine Basin, which carries deep water far to the south, the bottom temperature in 40° S.
In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed in the plane of the equator, the armilla is one of the most ancient of astronomical instruments.
If the two places are upon the same meridian or upon the equator the exact distance separating them is to be found by reference to a table giving the lengths of arcs of a meridian and of the equator.
The correct relations in the length of degrees of latitude and longitude are maintained in the first case along the latitude of Thule and the equator, in the second along the parallel of Agisymba, the equator and the parallels of Meroe, Syene and Thule.
Just south of the equator channels from the long, branching Lake Deshekwama or Hardinge, fed by the Lakdera river, enter from the west, and in o° 15' S.