In 1220 form one of the most momentous epochs in Innocent Italian history.
This was one of the few great epochs of geographical discovery.
Heart-wood is first formed at very different epochs in the life of a tree, according to the speciese.g.
FortressesThe fixed defences maintained by the German empire (apart from naval ports and coast defences) belong to two distinct epochs in the military policy of the state.
It should be observed that the tyranny of Peisistratus is one of the many epochs of Greek history on which opinion has almost entirely changed since the age of Grote.
The Russian plains have been, however, the scene of so many migrations of successive races, that at many places a series of deposits belonging to widely distant epochs are found one upon another.
We may commence by dealing with the sun as we find it at the present moment, and thence inferring what must have been the progress of events in the earlier epochs of the history of our system.
European influence on Asia has been specially strong at two epochs, firstly after the conquests of Alexander the Great, and secondly from the r6th century onwards.
For monographs on the grand masters, the various territories, and the different epochs in the history of the Order see the references in Loserth's work.
The total duration of the earth they fix at four hundred and eighty thousand years, divided into seven epochs, in each of which one of the planets rules.
But the Third Crusade, unlike the First, does not spring from the papacy, which was passing through one of its epochs of depression; it springs from the lay power, which, represented by the three strong monarchies of Germany, England and France, was at this time dominant in Europe.
We must here group these important epochs together, as distinguished from the later period of Roman rule, and confine ourselves to a brief notice of their principal monuments and a record of the discoveries by which they have been illustrated in recent years.
If Marca's criticism is too often undecided, both in the ancient epochs, where he supports the text by a certain amount of guesswork and in certain points where he touches on religion, yet he always gives the text correctly.
From such a rudis indiges-, taque moles, after it had attained an almost world-wide distribution, have arisen the various Ratitae, independently at various epochs and in various countries.
Further discoveries have resulted in the division of the Palaeolithic Age into various epochs or sequences according to the faunas associated with the implements or the localities where found.
The four epochs or culture-sequences of G.
Living in the interval between Ennius and Lucilius, whose original force and genius survive only in rude and inartistic fragments, he produced six plays, which have not only reached our time in the form in which they were given to the world, but have been read in the most critical and exacting literary epochs, and still may be read without any feeling of the need of making allowance for the rudeness of a new and undeveloped art.
A little to the south-west of the cathedral is the Hofburg, or imperial palace, a huge complex of buildings of various epochs and in various styles, enclosing several courtyards.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
When it began to be seen, various epochs were selected by various writers; and at first each small separate community had its own epoch and method of time-reckoning.
The extension of intercourse between the various small groups or societies of men, and still more their union in larger groups, made a common epoch necessary, and led to the adoption of such a starting point by each larger group. These leading epochs continued in use for many centuries.
The most generally adopted was that assigned by Varro, 753 B.C. It is noteworthy how nearly these three great epochs approach each other, - all lying near the middle of the 8th century B.C. But it is to be remembered that the beginning of an era and its adoption and use as such are not the same thing, nor are they necessarily synchronous.
But it is necessary to notice here the different Eras and Periods that have been employed by historians, and by the different nations of the world, in recording the succession of time and events, to fix the epochs at which the eras respectively commenced, to ascertain the form and the initial day of the year made use of, and to establish their correspondence with the years of the Christian era.
In the chronicles of the middle ages much uncertainty frequently arises respecting dates on account of the different epochs assumed for the beginning of the Christian year.
A knowledge of the different epochs which have been chosen for the commencement of the year in different countries is indispensably necessary to the right interpretation of ancient chronicles, charters and other documents in which the dates often appear contradictory.
But notwithstanding its general prevalence in the East for many centuries, authors using it differ much with regard to their manner of expressing dates, in consequence of the different epochs adopted for the beginning of the year.
Hence there is a difference of eleven months between the epochs assumed by the Syrians and the Greeks.
Each day of the cycle has a particular name, and as it is a usual practice, in mentioning dates, to give the name of the day along with that of the moon and the year, this arrangement affords great facilities in verifying the epochs of Chinese chronology.
The second part deals with chronological and mathematical questions, and has been of great service in determining the principal epochs of ancient history.
If the amplitudes a, b, c. and the epochs e, f, g....
But no uniform system of selection was pursued; or rather perhaps the results of several systems, adopted at various epochs, and under the influence of varying currents of ideas, became amalgamated in the final series.
,It embraces a consideration of the external forms of plants - of their anatomical structure, however minute - of the functions which they perform - of their arrangement and classification - of their distribution over the globe at the present and at former epochs - and of the uses to which they are subservient.
The nature of the climate at different epochs of the earth's history has also been determined from the character of the flora.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
That these animals were widely distributed in former times is proved by their occurrence at the present day in palaeozoic fossiliferous strata both of the northern hemisphere and of Australia; and despite the fact that their remains have not been found in rocks of the Mesozoic or Kainozoic epochs, it was conceived to be possible that living specimens might be dredged from the sea-floor during the exploration of the ocean depths undertaken by the "Challenger" expedition.
The complexity of the glacial period and its subdivision into several glacial epochs, separated by interglacial epochs of considerable length (certainly longer than the postglacial epoch) has a structural consequence in the superposition of successive till sheets, alternating with non-glacial deposits, and also a physiographic consequence in the very different amount of normal postglacial erosion suffered by the different parts of the glacial deposits.
The number of glacial epochs now recognized is five, trot eounting minor episodes.
The climate of some of the interglacial epochs was at least as warm as that of the present time in the same regions.
The glacial epochs which have been differentiated are the following, numbered in chronological order:
The larger part of it seems to date from the closing stages of the Iowan epoch, but bess appears to have come into existence after other glacial epochs as well.
The estimate of the time between the first and last glacial epochs is based on changes which the earlier drift has undergone as compared with those which the younger drift has undergone.
In the west the Quaternary deposits are not, in all cases, sharply separated from the late Tertiary, but the deposits of glacial drift, referable to two or more glacial epochs, are readily differentiated from the Tertiary; so, also, are certain lacustrine deposits, such as those of the extinct lakes Bonneville and Lahontan.
At certain epochs in the transmission of literature systematic efforts have been made to improve the transmitted texts, and these efforts have naturally been accompanied by a good deal of emendation both successful and unsuccessful.
Instead of distinguishing the days by the ordinal numbers first,, second, third, &c., the Romans counted backwards from three fixed epochs, namely, the Calends, the Nones and the Ides.
This period is not astronomical, like the two former, but has reference to certain judicial acts which took place at stated epochs under the Greek emperors.
[[Table Xil]] - Epochs, Eras, and Periods.
There are upwards of 400,000 specimens, arranged in twelve classes, so as to mark the great epochs in the history of art.
Pennington, Epochs of the Papacy (London, 1880; F.
2 At the most critical epochs such men have ever been raised up, and the reflex influence of their lives and self-denial has told upon the Church at home, while apart from their influence the entire history of important portions of the world's surface would have been altered.
Further, we know that in the 8th century B.C., there were observatories in most of the large cities in the valley of the Euphrates, and that professional astronomers regularly took observations of the heavens, copies of which were sent to the king of Assyria; and from a cuneiform inscription found in the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, the text of which is given by George Smith,5 we learn that at that time the epochs of eclipses of both sun and moon were predicted as possible - probably by means of the cycle of 223 lunations or Chaldaean Saros - and that observations were made accordingly.
The preface divides the ecclesiastical year into four periods corresponding to the various epochs of the world's history, a time of deviation, of renovation, of reconciliation and of pilgrimage.
He also edited the series of Epochs of English History, for which he wrote "The Age of Elizabeth" (13th ed., 1897); Historical Lectures and Addresses by Mandell Creighton, &c., edited by Mrs Creighton, were published in 1903.
In the absence of a strict chronology, the epochs of Pharaonic history are conveniently reckoned in dynasties according to Manethos scheme, and these dynasties are grouped into longer periods :the Old Kingdom (Dynasties I.
The latter, judged as literature, is intolerably dull; but the former is valuable, throwing as it does considerable light on his personal sympathies as well as on the motives of important epochs in his career.
The Turkish population, descended in part from the Ottoman invaders of the 14th and 15th centuries, in part from colonists introduced at various epochs from Asia by the Turkish government, declined considerably during the 19th century, especially in the countries withdrawn from the sultan's authority.
The term has no real chronological value, for there has been no universal synchronous sequence of the three epochs in all quarters of the world.
The startings and arrivals of the cars are now the epochs in the village day.
There were, therefore, two principal epochs of folding in the island, one at the close of the Palaeozoic era which affected the whole of the island, and one at the close of the Mesozoic which was felt only in the western region.
It was the great work of Descartes to exclude rigorously from science all explanations which were not scientifically verifiable; and the prevalence of materialism at certain epochs, as in the enlightenment of the 18th century and in the German philosophy of the middle, 9th, were occasioned by special need to vindicate the scientific position, in the former case against the Church, in the latter case against the pseudo-science of the Hegelian dialectic. The chief definite periods of materialism are the pre-Socratic and the post-Aristotelian in Greece, the 18th century in France, and in Germany the, 9th century from about 1850 to 1880.
Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
The keel has been lost, and is being lost, at various epochs and by various groups of birds.
The imaginal disks make their appearance (that is, have been first detected) at very different epochs in the life; their absolute origin has been but little investigated.
Although in the course of its long history it has undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves many monuments of its ancient days.