Each bud arises as a thickening of the epithelium, which.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
External epithelium is flat on the ex-umbral surface, more columnar on the sub-umbral surface, where it forms the muscular tissue of the sub-umbrella and the velum.
The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.
Covered with sensory ectodermal epithelium an d containing an After 0.
Thus the gonads are covered over by at least four layers of epithelium, and since these are unnecessary, presenting merely obstacles to the dehiscence of the gonads, they gradually undergo reduction.
It is seen from the foregoing account of medusa - budding that the entocodon is a very important constituent of the bud, furnishing some of the most essential portions of the medusa; its cavity becomes the subumbral cavity, and its lining furnishes the ectodermal epithelium of the manubrium and of the sub-umbral cavity as far as the edge of the velum.
From these facts,, and from those of the sporogony, to be described below, we may regard budding to this type as taking place from the germinal epithelium rather than from ordinary ectoderm.
The buds of Margellium are produced on the manubrium in each of the four interradii, and they arise from the ectoderm, that is to say, the germinal epithelium, which later gives rise to the gonads.
- Budding from the Ectoderm (germinal epithelium) in Margellium.
(After C. Chun.) A, The epithelium becomes twothe bud forms an entocodon layered.
In these features, and in the fact that the gonads are local proliferations of the coelomic epithelium, which have undergone no further changes in the simpler forms, the coelom of this group shows in a particularly clear fashion the general characters of the coelom in the higher Metazoa.
Quite independent of these are certain large dorsally situate funnel-like folds of the coelomic epithelium, ciliated, but of which no duct has been discovered leading to the exterior.
In the majority of the Megascolicidae each sac is provided with one or more diverticula, tubular or oval in form, of a slightly different histological character in the lining epithelium, and in them is invariably lodged the sperm.
These tubes are lined by flattened epithelium and often contain blood capillaries; they communicate with the coelom and are to be regarded as prolongation of it into the thickness of the body wall.
- Dorsal surface of the Limpet removed from its shell and deprived of its black pigmented epithelium; the internal organs are seen through the transparent body-wall.
When the shell is taken away (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may be removed, enabling the observer to note the posi.
- A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.
Each renal organ is a sac lined with glandular epithelium (ciliated cell, with concretions) communicating with the exterior by its papilla, and by ce, Cerebral ganglia.
Below the surface these walls are excavated with blood-vessels, so that the sac is practically a series of blood-vessels covered with renal epithelium, and forming 6 Cephalic tentacle.
Epithelium of the dorsal surface.
H, Renal epithelium lining the renal sacs.
The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell.
An air-tube consists of an epithelium of large polygonal cells with a thin basement-membrane externally and y a chitinous layer internally, the lastnamed being continuous with the outer cuticle.
These two endoderm-rudiments embryonic membrane formed by delamination from the blastoderm, ultimately grow together and give rise to the epithelium of the midwhile in a few insects, including the wingless spring-tails, the emgut.
In Hemiptera only eleven and in Collembola only yolk, and that the mesenteric epithelium becomes reinforced by six abdominal segments have been detected.
In the posterior portion this epithelium in certain Heteronemertea has a more glandular appearance, and sometimes the interior cavity is obliterated by cell-proliferation in this region.
Here the pits split into two, one part ending in a sac lined with sensory epithelium, and embedded in nervous tissue, the other projecting backwards as a long, glandular, blind canal.
A series 750.) I, The longitudinal of sacs lined with an epithelium, the proexcretory canal; 2, one liferation of which gives rise to the ova of the tags containing the or spermatozoa, alternate between the flame-cells.
Although an integral portion of the gut, it has ceased to assist in alimentation, its epithelium undergoes vacuolar differentiation and hypertrophy, and its lumen becomes more or less vestigial.
By this time the skin epithelium may have grown over the wound.
According to the hypothesis of Waldeyer and Thiersch there is perfect equilibrium between the normal epithelium and its supporting structure, the connective tissue, but with advancing age this balance is upset owing to the connective tissue gradually losing its restraining power.
It spreads forwards, affecting the supporting fibres outside the epithelium of the capillaries, and then passes to the connective-tissue fibrils of the veins.
252; Schottlander, " Nuclear and Cell Division in Epithelium of Inflamed Skin," Arch.
Even the ectoderm can rarely be recognized as an obvious epithelium except in regions where budding is taking place, while muscular layers are always absent and a coelomic epithelium can seldom be observed.
Fixation takes place by means of this sucker, which is everted for the purpose, part of its epithelium becoming the basal ectoderm of the ancestrula.
The two apposed layers of endoderm in the cathammal area undergo complete fusion to form a single layer of epithelium, the endoderm-lamella of the adult medusa.
Nevertheless the filament is a complete tube formed of chitinous substance and clothed externally by ciliated epithelium, internally by endothelium and lacunar tissue - a form of connective tissue - as shown in fig.
United with these ganglia on the outer sides are the osphradial ganglia, above which the epithelium is modified to form a pair of sense-organs, corresponding to the osphradia of other Molluscs.
Until the fifth or sixth week the development of the genital ridge is very much the same in the two sexes, and consists of cords of cells growing from the epithelium-covered surface into the mesenchyme, which forms the interior of the ridge.
It must, of course, be understood that the germinal epithelium covering the ridge, and the mesenchyme inside it, are both derived from the mesoderm or middle layer of the embryo.
Recent research, however, points to these cords of the rete testis et ovarii as being derived from the coelomic epithelium instead of from the mesonephros.
These ducts, however, as well as the coelomic epithelium, may assume excretory functions.
The external epithelium of the dorsal region secretes the shell.
The zone of the external surface of the mantle within the edge secretes a layer formed of prisms of calcite; the rest of the epithelium from this zone to the apex secretes the inner layer of the shell, composed of successive laminae; this is the nacreous layer, and in certain species has a commercial value as nacre or mother-of-pearl.
In one or two cases the epithelium of the foot secretes a calcified shell, which is either free as in Argonauta or adherent as in Hipponyx.
Near the base of the ctenidium is a patch of sensory epithelium innervated from the branchial nerve, forming a sense-organ called the osphradium, whose function is to test the water entering the branchial cavity.
The otocysts are invaginations of the epithelium of the foot, but are innervated from the cerebral ganglia, and the same innervation has been proved in some cases for the osphradia.
This ridge forms the edge of the shell-secreting epithelium, and therefore of the mantle, since the shell extends to the edge of the mantle.
Within this muscular tube lies a parenchymatous tissue which may be uniform (Cestodes) or differentiated into a central or digestive, and a peripheral portion (some Turbellaria), or finally the central portion becomes tubular and forms the digestive sac (Trematodes), while the peripheral portion is separated from it by a space lined in some forms by a flattened epithelium (most Planarians).
The stomach is formed upon much the same principle as that of the horse or rhinoceros, but is more elongated transversely and divided by a constriction into two cavities - a large left cul de sac, lined by a very dense white epithelium, and a right pyloric cavity, with a thick, soft, vascular lining.
Temporary oviducts are formed between the "spermduct" and the germinal epithelium at each oviposition.
On the inner surface is a layer of peritoneal epithelium, which is frequently ciliated, and at the bases of the retractor muscles is heaped up and modified into the reproductive organs.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
E, Epithelium of general surface.