It arose partly from the makeshift policy of the times of the Reformation, and partly from Luther's strong belief that the jus episcopale belonged in the last resort to the civil authorities.
The jus episcopale which Luther afterwards claimed for the secular authorities had been practically exercised in Saxony and Brandenburg; cities and districts had framed police regulations which set aside ecclesiastical decrees about holidays and begging; the supervision of charity was passing from the hands of the church into those of laymen; and religious confraternities which did not take their guidance from the clergy were increasing.
For Hincmar's political and ecclesiastical theories see preface to Maurice Prou's edition of the De ordine palatii (Paris, 1885), and the abbe Lesne, La Hierarchie episcopale en Gaule et en Germanie (Paris, 1905).
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
Lot, Etudes sur le regne de Hugues Capet (Paris, 1903); Lesne, La Hierarchie episcopale en Gaule et Germanic (Paris, 1905); for the province of Tours and Le Mans: B.