The local climates of France may be grouped under the following seven designations: (I) Sequan climate, characterizing the Seine basin and northern France, with a mean temperature of 500 F., the winters being cold, the summers mild; (2) Breton climate, with a mean temperature of 51-8 F., the winters being mild, the summers temperate, it is characterized by, west and south-west winds and frequent fine rains; (3) Girondin climate (characterizing Bordeaux, Agen, Pau, &c.), having a mean of 53.6 F., with mild winters and hot summers, the prevailing wind is from the north-west, the average rainfall about 28 in.; (4) Auvergne climate, comprising the Cvennes, central plateau, Clermont, Lirnoges anti Rodez, mean temperature 51.8 F., with cold winters and hot summers; (5) Vosges climate (comprehending Epinal, Mzires and Nancy), having a mean of 48.2 F., with long and severe winters and hot and rainy summers; (6) Rhne climate (experienced by Lyons, Chalon, Macon, Grenoble) mean temperature 5I~8 F., with cold and wet winters and hot summers, the prevailing winds are north and south; (7) Mediterranean climate, ruling at Valence, NImes, Nice and Marseilles, mean temperature, 57.5 F., with mild winters and hot and almost rainless summers.
That of the Vosges, which has experienced a great extension since the loss of Alsace-Lorraine, comprises Epinal, St Die, Remiremont and Belfort.
The manufacture of paper and cardboard is largely carried on In Isre (Voiron), Seine-et-Oise (Essonnes), Vosges (Epinal) and of the finer sorts of paper in Charente (Angoulenie).
From this point a gap (the troue dEpinal) was left, so as in some sort to canalize the flow of invasion (General Bonnal), until the upper Moselle was reached at Epinal (q.v.).
In rear of these lines VerdunToul and Epinal-Belfort, respectively, lie two large defended areas in which under certain circumstances the main armies would assemble preparatory to offensive movements.
Apart from the church of St Gory (or St Maurice) rebuilt in the 13th century but preserving a tower of the 12th century, the public buildings of Epinal offer little of architectural interest.
The fortifications of Epinal are connected to the southward with Belfort, Dijon and Besancon, by the fortified line of the Moselle, and north of it lies the unfortified zone called the Trouee d'Epinal, a gap designedly left open to the invaders between Epinal and Toul, another great fortress which is itself connected by the Meuse forts d'arret with Verdun and the places of the north-east.
Epinal therefore is a fortress of the greatest possible importance to the defence of France, and its works, all built since 1870, are formidable permanent fortifications.
Above Epinal, form a chain of detached forts and batteries over 6 m.
Distant from Epinal; from the lower Moselle to Girancourt the works are grouped principally about Uxegney and Sarchey; from Girancourt to the upper river and Fort de la Mouche a long ridge extends in an arc, and on this south-western section the principal defence is Fort Ticha and its annexes.
The circle of forts, which has a perimeter of nearly 30 m., was in 1895 reinforced by the construction of sixteen new works, and the area of ground enclosed and otherwise protected by the defences of Epinal is sufficiently extensive to accommodate a large army.
Epinal is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce, training-colleges, a communal college and industrial school, and exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
An industry peculiar to Epinal is the production of cheap images, lithographs and engravings.
Epinal is an important junction on the Eastern railway.
Epinal originated towards the end of the 10th century with the founding of a monastery by Theodoric (Dietrich) I., bishop of Metz, whose successors ruled the town till 1444, when its inhabitants placed themselves under the protection of Kin& Charles VII.
Of Epinal by rail.