Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.
Doing this she bursts the epidermis of the rootlet, and her body projects into the surrounding earth.
Pression of epidermis, opening downwards.
In many forms its hyphae are particularly thick-walled, and may strikingly resemble the epidermis of a vascular plant.
This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.
Sometimes the epidermis is considerably more developed by tangential division of its cells, forming a many-layered water-tissue.
The epidermis of a very large number of species bears hairs of various kinds.
Types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
In the epidermis itself (rarely), in any layer of the cortex, or in the pericycle.
Usually they are absent from the cells of the epidermis, though in some of the lower plants they are met with there also.
The other type is called endctropic. The fungal filaments either penetrate the epidermis of the root, or enter it from the stem and ramify in the interior.
In such leaves, there are a well-marked cuticle, a thick epidermis, a thick hypodermis at least on the upper side of the leaf, well-developed palisade tissue, and a poorly developed system of air-spaces.
In the epidermal cells of the leaf of species of Vanilla (\Vakker), and in the epidermis of different parts of the flower of Funkia, Ornithogalum, &c. (Zimniermann), highly refractive bodies of globular form, elaioplasts, which consist of a granular protein ground-substance containing drops of oil.
- Stinging Hair of Urtica dioica, with a portion of the epidermis, and, to the right, a small bristle (X60).
In Lanice conchilega the posterior series of nephridia are connected by a thick longitudinal duct, which seems to be seen in its most reduced form in Owenia, where a duct on each side runs in the epidermis, being in parts a groove, and receives one short tubular nephridium only and occupies only one segment.
The body wall consists of an epidermis which secretes a delicate cuticle and is only ciliated in Aeolosoma, and in that genus only on the under surface of the prostomium.
In favour of seeing in the lateral trunks and their branches a vascular system, is the contractility of the former, and the fact of the intrusion of the latter into the epidermis, matched among the Oligochaeta, where undoubted blood capillaries perforate the epidermis.
A further fact must be considered in deciding this question, which is the discovery of ramifying coelomic tubes, approaching close to, but not entering, the epidermis in the Polychaete Arenicola.
They are found one on each cephalic tentacle, and are simply minute open pits or depressions of the epidermis, the epidermic cells lining them being pigmented and connected with nerves (compare fig.
Externally is a thin cuticle; this covers the epidermis, which consists of a syncytium with no cell limits.
These hollow roots terminate blindly in the dorsal epidermis of the collar, and place the nervous layer of the latter in direct connexion with the fibres of the nerve-tube.
Special thickenings of the diffuse nervous layer of the epidermis occur in certain regions and along certain lines.
The disease spreads by the mycelium growing ever the epidermis of the plant.
(After de Bary.) In A several cells of the epidermis plants.
Our outside and often thin and fanciful clothes are our epidermis, or false skin, which partakes not of our life, and may be stripped off here and there without fatal injury; our thicker garments, constantly worn, are our cellular integument, or cortex; but our shirts are our liber, or true bark, which cannot be removed without girdling and so destroying the man.