The Sophists and the Sceptics, Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics and the Epicureans took up the question, and from the time of Locke and Kant it has been prominent in modern philosophy.
He set up an " intelligence bureau " in Rome, instituted mysteries like those of Eleusis, from which his particular enemies the Christians and Epicureans were alike excluded as " profane," and celebrated a mystic marriage between himself and the moon.
Cosmological materialism is that form of the doctrine in which the dominant motive is the formation of a comprehensive world-scheme: the Stoics and Epicureans were cosmological materialists.
- The Epicureans differed from the Stoics by adopting a purely mechanical view of the worldprocess.
The Epicureans, on the other hand, were empirical pessimists.
The Epicureans regarded fate as blind chance, while to the Stoics everything is subject to an absolute rational law.
Among the ancients the Epicureans expressed all eudaemonia in terms of pleasure.
To the Epicureans the elaborate logic of the Stoics was a superfluity.
The crowds of Epicureans were a standing enigma to the adherents of less popular sects.
3), we find the names of Phaedrus (who became scholarch at Athens c. 70 B.C.) and Philodemus (originally of Gadara in Palestine) as distinguished Epicureans in the time of Cicero.
A great deal of the best of the Renaissance was founded on Epicureanism, and in more recent times a great number of prominent thinkers have been Epicureans in a greater or less degree.
Zeller, Philosophy of the Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (Eng.
But all these philosophic discussions, belonging for the most part to an author less than secondary among the Epicureans, fall short of the high expectations excited by the first discovery of the library.
He has nothing but contempt for the Epicureans, and cannot forgive their neglect of literary style.
Reichel, Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (1870 and 1880); S.
This empirical groundwork of Aristotle's logic was accepted by the Epicureans, who enunciated most distinctly the fundamental doctrine that all sensations are true of their immediate objects, and falsity begins with subsequent opinions, or what the moderns call " interpretation."
Beneath deductive logic, in the logic of Aristotle and the canonic of the Epicureans, there already lay the basis of empirical logic: sensory experience is the origin of all inference and science.
It is the idea of tension or tonicity as the essential attribute of body, in contradistinction to passive inert matter, which is distinctively Stoic. The Epicureans leave unexplained the primary constitution and first movements of their atoms or elemental solids; chance or declination may account for them.
But this criterion was open to the persistent attacks of Epicureans and Academics, who made clear (t) that reason is dependent upon, if not derived from, sense, and (2) that the utterances of reason lack consistency.
In contrast to the Cyrenaics and the Epicureans, the Stoics denied that pleasure is actually or ought to be the object of human activity.
Just then there had been a movement towards a wider and more liberal education, by which even contemporary Epicureans were affected.
The Sadducees were the hypocrites of the Jewish world, just as the Epicureans were the hypocrites of the Greek world.
The rest of the Jews rated the Sadducees as atheists, just as the rest of the Greeks rated the Epicureans as atheists and discerned, as Plutarch said, the sardonic grin behind the mask of their obsequious devotion to the ceremonies at which the force of public opinion compelled their attendance.
The followers of Simon Magus, of Menander and of Marcion, he says, were all called Christians, but so also Epicureans and Stoics were alike called philosophers.
In this sense it may be fairly said that Stoics and Epicureans made rival offers to mankind of the same kind of happiness; and the philosophical peculiarities of either system may be traced to the desire of being undisturbed by the changes and chances of life.
1 The genial fellowship of the philosophic community that he collected in his garden remained a striking feature in the traditions of his school; and certainly the ideal which Stoics and Epicureans equally cherished of a brotherhood of sages was most easily realized on the Epicurean plan of withdrawing from political and dialectical conflict to simple living and serene leisure, in imitation of the gods apart from the fortuitous concourse of atoms that we call a world.
The Epicureans, again, from their unquestioning acceptance of the " dogmas " 2 of their founder, almost deserve to be called a sect rather than a school.
It is divided, according to the usual fashion of the Epicureans, into logic (which, with Gassendi as with Epicurus, is truly canonic), physics and ethics.
For, though the quarrel with popular anthropomorphism was patched up, and the gods of the Pantheon were described by Stoics and Epicureans as manlike in form, philosophy nevertheless tended to highly abstract conceptions of supreme, or real, deity.