His defection from the Epicurean school is almost unique.
He was a quietist and an epicurean, and the closest parallel to Homer in the literature of the North.
Gibbon was such a man as Horace might have been, had the Roman Epicurean been fonder of hard intellectual work, and less prone than he was to the indulgence of emotion.
Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
That this cynic manner, and Epicurean speech, were only the outside of.
And though the Stoic doctrine of determinism did not, when applied to moral problems, advance much beyond the reiteration of arguments derived from the universal validity of the principles of causality, nor the Epicurean counter-assertion of freedom avoid the error of regarding chance as a real cause and universal contingency as an explanation of the universe, it was nevertheless a real step forward to perceive the existence of the problem.
It is not, however, in this, which is only the old Cyrenaic or Epicurean answer, that the distinctive point of Hobbism lies.
According to this authority Jovinian in 388 was living at Rome the celibate life of an ascetic monk, possessed a good acquaintance with the Bible, and was the author of several minor works, but, undergoing an heretical change of view, afterwards became a self-indulgent Epicurean and unrefined sensualist.
The last is a philosophy of naturalism in the form of a conversation between seven learned men - a Jew, a Mahommedan, a Lutheran, a Zwinglian, a Roman Catholic, an Epicurean and a Theist.
The names of the authors are in themselves sufficient to show that the library belonged to a person whose principal study was the Epicurean philosophy.
And there is much that is anticipatory of modern libertarian views in the psychological argument by which Carneades attempted at once to avoid the Epicurean identification of will with chance, and to prove the rationality of choice, undetermined by any external or antecedent necessity, as an explanation of human actions Xxviii.
This paradox is violent, but it is quite in harmony with the spirit of Stoicism; and we are more startled to find that the Epicurean sage, no less than the Stoic, is to be happy even on the rack; that his happiness, too, is unimpaired by being restricted in duration, when his mind has apprehended the natural limits of life; that, in short, Epicurus makes no less strenuous efforts than Zeno to eliminate imperfection from the conditions of human existence.
1 The genial fellowship of the philosophic community that he collected in his garden remained a striking feature in the traditions of his school; and certainly the ideal which Stoics and Epicureans equally cherished of a brotherhood of sages was most easily realized on the Epicurean plan of withdrawing from political and dialectical conflict to simple living and serene leisure, in imitation of the gods apart from the fortuitous concourse of atoms that we call a world.
While approving of the Epicurean physics, he rejects altogether the Epicurean negation of God and particular providence.
In the third part, the ethics, over and above the discussion on freedom, which on the whole is indefinite, there is little beyond a milder statement of the Epicurean moral code.
PHILODEMUS, Epicurean philosopher and poet, was born at Gadara in Coele-Syria early in the ist century B.C., and settled in Rome in the time of Cicero.
These works deal with music, rhetoric, ethics, signs, virtues and vices, and defend the Epicurean standpoint against the Stoics and the Peripatetics.
Pater, Marius the Epicurean (London, 1888); Matthew Arnold's Essays; C. H.
He seems to have been much indulged, and to have led a very pleasant life of it; he pleased himself in moderate excursions, frequented the theatre, mingled, though not very often, in society; was sometimes a little extravagant, and sometimes a little dissipated, but never lost the benefits of his Lausanne exile; and easily settled into a sober, discreet, calculating Epicurean philosopher, who sought the summum bonum of man in temperate, regulated and elevated pleasure.
A similar change between the earlier odes of Horace, in which he declares his epicurean indifference to affairs of state, and the great national odes of the third book is to be ascribed to the same guidance.
It is not necessary to multiply authors, as is done, for example, by Siegfried, who supposes four principal writers (a pessimistic philosopher, an Epicurean glossator, a sage who upholds the value of wisdom, and an orthodox editor) besides a number of annotators; it is sufficient to assume that several conservative scribes have made short additions to the original work.
In spite of the relief afforded by orthodox additions, it was urged that its Epicurean sentiments contradicted the Torah and favoured heresy.
The wife of Metrodorus was Leontion, herself, like many other women of the time, a member of the Epicurean society.
He censures his brother, Timocrates, who, though professedly Epicurean, maintained the existence of pleasures other than those of the body.
The Epicurean had no scruple about the servitude of those whose labours contributed to his own indulgence and tranquillity.
The rolls found in the ruins of Herculaneum contain generally the less interesting works of writers of the, Epicurean school.
ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.
He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted.
A new taste for philosophy had developed among members of the governing class during the youth of Lucretius, and eminent Greek teachers of the Epicurean sect settled at Rome at the same time, and lived on terms of intimacy with them.
In the Epicurean system of philosophy he believed that he had found the weapons by which this war of liberation could be most effectually waged.
In the fourth book he discusses the Epicurean doctrine of the images, which are cast from all bodies, and which act either on the senses or immediately on the mind, in dreams or waking visions, as affording the explanation of the belief in the continued existence of the spirits of the departed.
Besides the Institutions Lactantius wrote several treatises: (I) De Ira Dei, addressed to one Donatus and directed against the Epicurean philosophy.
Is above all a pure philosopher, but also a man of deep religious feeling, whose quest and goal are the knowledge of God; Celsus, the friend of Lucian, though sometimes called Epicurean and sometimes Platonist, is not a professed philosopher at all, but a man of the world, really at heart an agnostic, like Caecilius in Minucius Felix, whose religion is nothing more or less than the Empire.
In his antipathy to Christianity, which appears to him barbaric and superstitious, he gives himself up to the scepticism and satire of a man of the world through which he comes in contact with Epicurean tendencies."
He comes before us as a belated epicurean, whose airy trifles cannot be warbled in an atmosphere surcharged with tempests and gunpowder.
Works: - Neue Apologie des Socrates, &c. (2 vols., 1772-1778); Allgemeine Theorie des Denkens and Empfindens, &c. (Berlin, 1776), an essay which gained the prize assigned by the Royal Society of Berlin for that year; Von dem Begriff der Philosophie and ihren Theilen (Berlin, 1778) - a short essay, in which he announced the plan of his lectures on being appointed to the professorship at Halle; Lobschrift auf Herrn Johann Thunmann Prof. der Weltweisheit and Beredsamkeit auf der Universitcit zu Halle (Halle, 1779); Amyntor, eine Geschichte in Briefen (Berlin, 1782) - written with the view of counteracting the influence of those sceptical and Epicurean principles in religion and morals then so prevalent in France, and rapidly spreading amongst the higher ranks in Germany; Ober die Zeichen der Aufklarung einer Nation, &c. (Halle, 1783); Theorie der schonen Kiinste and Wissenschaften, &c. (Halle, 1783, 3rd ed.
He was also influenced by the Epicurean and the Academic and the revived Pythagorean schools.
The Epicurean philosophy is traditionally divided into the three branches of logic, physics and ethics.
Similarly, just because fear, hope and remembrance add to the intensity of consciousness, the Epicurean can hold that bodily pain and pleasure is a less durable and important thing than pain and pleasure of mind.
The Epicurean canon is a rejection of logic; it sticks fast to the one point that " sensation is sensation, ?
In the Epicurean physics there are two parts - a general metaphysic and psychology, and a special explanation of particular phenomena of nature.
This aspect of the Epicurean physics becomes clearer when we look at his mode of rendering particular phenomena intelligible.
In fact, it is only when we assume for man this independence of the gods and of fatality that the Epicurean theory of life becomes possible.
Neither sect, it may be added, advocated sensuality pure and unfeigned - the Epicurean least of all.
The happiness of the Epicurean was, it might almost seem, a grave and solemn pleasure - a quiet unobtrusive ease of heart, but not exuberance and excitement.
Cicero pondered over the fact; Arcesilaus explained the secession to the Epicurean camp, compared with the fact that no Epicurean was ever known to have abandoned his school, by saying that, though it was possible for a man to be turned into a eunuch, no eunuch could ever become a man.
He was much impressed by the teaching of Phaedrus, the Epicurean, at a period before he assumed the toga virilis; he studied dialectic under Diodotus the Stoic, and in 88 B.C. attended the lectures of Philo, the head of the Academic school, whose devoted pupil he became.
Manlius Torquatus explains the Epicurean doctrine, which is refuted in ii.
The statement of the Epicurean doctrine is drawn from the work of Phaedrus HEpi O &,v, the criticism of this from Posidonius.
He kept up an intimacy which had begun at Cambridge with John Hall-Stevenson (1718-1785), a witty and accomplished epicurean, owner of Skelton Hall ("Crazy Castle") in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.
In the person of an emperor, Frederick II., they emerged under the more agreeable garb of liberal culture and Epicurean scepticism.
Why should not established institutions proceed upon the customary and convenient methods of routine, while the delights of existence were augmented, manners polished, arts developed, and a golden age of epicurean ease made decent by a state religion which no one cared to break with because no one was left to regard it seriously?
On the one hand, soul is corporeal, else it would have no real existence, would be incapable of extension in three dimensions (and therefore of equable diffusion all over the body), incapable of holding the body together, as the Stoics contended that it does, herein presenting a sharp contrast to the Epicurean tenet that it is the body which confines and shelters the light vagrant atoms of soul.
We learn indeed from incidental notices that he inclined to Stoicism and disliked the Epicurean system.
With the Stoic and Epicurean philosophies the problem as it shapes itself for the consideration of the modern world begins to appear in clearer outlines.