1), but elsewhere, possibly at Ephesus; yet Philemon may have been on a visit to Ephesus, for, even were the Ephesian Onesimus of Ignatius (Eph.
The main argument for putting it earlier is derived from the admitted affinities between it and Romans, the Colossian and Ephesian epistles containing, it is held, a more advanced christology (so Lightfoot especially, and Hort, Judaistic Christianity, pp. 115-129).
Argument Harnack has the support of a considerable number of modern scholars who deny the Ephesian residence of John the apostle.
The facts of the problem would all appear covered by the hypothesis that John the presbyter, the eleven being all dead, wrote the book of Revelation (its more ancient Christian portions) say in 69, and died at Ephesus say in loo; that the author of the Gospel wrote the first draft, here, say in 97; that this book, expanded by him, first circulated within a select Ephesian Christian circle; and that the Ephesian church officials added to it the appendix and published it in 110 -120.
The efforts, however, to give effect to this act on the following Sunday were frustrated by the zeal of the Ephesian mob.
In this cult the emperor came to be associated with the common worship of the Ephesian Artemis.
It is difficult to see how Luke can have been wrong with regard to the "Ephesian elders" who came to meet Paul at Miletus since he was present on the occasion (xx.
38, uncontradicted by anything in the sequel, a broad hint that Paul never saw his Ephesian friends again, the natural view is open that the sequel to the two years' preaching was too well known to call for explicit record.
It was an Ephesian follower of his, Hermodorus, who aided the Decemviri at Rome in their compilation of a system of law.
Ramsay), the latter showed a dangerous tendency to lightness and reaction, and later events show that the pagan tradition of Artemis continued very strong and perhaps never became quite extinct in the Ephesian district.
Since, however, other Greek temples had colonnades hardly less high, and were of equal or greater area, it has been suggested that the Ephesian temple had some distinct element of grandiosity, no longer known to us - perhaps a lofty sculptured parapet or some imposing form of podium.
Besides being a place of worship, a museum and a sanctuary, the Ephesian temple was a great bank.
It should, however, be added that very valuable topographical exploration has been carried out in the environs of Ephesus by members of the Austrian expedition, and that the Ephesian district is now mapped more satisfactorily than any other district of ancient interest in Asia Minor.
Reading the Ephesian doctrine with the eyes of a Cynic, and the Cynic ethics in the light of Heracliteanism, he came to formulate his distinctive theory of the universe far in advance of either.
2 In the Ephesian Ada Johannis (c. A.D.
The usual figure of the Ephesian Artemis, which was said in the first instance to have fallen from heaven, is in the form of a female with many breasts, the symbol of productivity or a token of her function as the all-nourishing mother.
Leucophryne (or Leucophrys), whose worship was brought by emigrants from Magnesia in Thessaly to Magnesia on the Maeander, was a nature goddess, and her representation on coins exactly resembles that of the Ephesian Artemis.
Between the two the road from Ephesus entered the city by the "Ephesian gate," near which was a gymnasium.