The realm at this time was environed by perils.
"You have accounted yourselves happy," he said in January 1658, "in being environed by a great ditch from all the world beside.
At the moment when this doctrine had come to be generally accepted by the thinking part of the nation, the Jews found themselves dispersed among foreign communities, and from that time were a subject people environed by aliens, Babylonian, Persian and Greek.
The ancient walls and ditches, which formerly environed the city, were dismantled between 1881 and 1885, and the site of the old fortifications, bought from the government by the municipality, were converted into a fine boulevard, the Ring, nearly 4 m.
Its situation in a broad valley environed by limestone hills is somewhat dreary.
The southern part is environed by high and well-wooded hills, while on the northern side, where it debouches on the plain, the banks are flat and less attractive.
Built largely on the well-wooded slopes of Westerton and Airthrey Hill, sheltered by the Ochils from the north and east winds, and environed by charming scenery, it has a great reputation as a health resort and watering-place, especially in winter and spring.
Gedymin inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Red Russia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian knights of the Sword.