In the Malay Peninsula, parts of Polynesia, &c., it is conceived as a head with attached entrails, which issues, it may be from the grave, to suck the blood of living human beings.
Their art (disciplina) consisted especially in deducing the will of the gods from the appearance presented by the entrails of the slain victim.
Vines, in particular, are the entrails of Chokanipok.
Crocodiles are caught in various ways, - for instance, with two pointed sticks, which are fastened crosswise within the bait, an animal's entrails, to which is attached a rope.
Hutton describes his specimens as sucking the juices of flies, which they had stuck down with their slime, and they have been observed in captivity to devour the entrails which have been removed from their fellows, and to eat raw sheep's liver.
To please the god, the victim must be without spot or blemish, and the practice of observing whether the entrails presented any abnormal appearance, and thence deducing the will of heaven, was also very important in Greek religion.
The blood is converted into clarifying material, the entrails are used for sausage coverings, the hoofs and small bones furnish the raw material for the manufacture of glue, the large bones are carved into knife handles, and the horns into combs, the fats are made to yield butterine, lard and soap, and the hides and hair are used in the manufacture of mattresses and felts.
Haruspication, or the inspection of entrails, was justified on similar grounds, and in the case of omens from birds or animals, no less than in astrology, it was held that the facts from which inferences were drawn were themselves in part the causes of the events which they foretold, thus fortifying the belief in the possibility of divination.
(ii.) In haruspication, or the inspection of entrails, in scapulomancy or divination by the speal-bone or shoulder-blade, in divination by footprints in ashes, found in Australia, Peru and Scotland, the voluntary element is prominent, for the diviner must take active steps to secure the conditions necessary to divination.