The old doctrine of types, which was used by the philosophically minded zoologists (and botanists) of the first half 1 A very subtle and important qualification of this generalization has to be recognized (and was recognized by Darwin) in the fact that owing to the interdependence of the parts of the bodies of living things and their profound chemical interactions and peculiar structural balance (what is called organic polarity) the variation of one single part (a spot of colour, a tooth, a claw, a leaflet) may, and demonstrably does in many cases entail variation of other parts - what are called correlated variations.
A detailed account of his activity from 1774 to 1782 would entail the mention of every crisis of the American War of Independence and of every serious debate in parliament.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
When that was found, the solution of one problem would immediately entail the solution of all others which belonged to the same series as itself.
Scudamore, second secretary to the Post Office, to inquire and report whether the electric telegraph service could be beneficially worked by the Post Office, and whether it would entail any very large expenditure on the.
For some time Tsar Alexius hesitated, because he knew that intervention could entail a war with Poland, but after consulting a National Assembly on the subject, he decided to take Little Russia under his protection, and in January 1654 a great Cossack assembly ratified the arrangement, on the understanding that a large part of the old local autonomy should be preserved.
But the great majority of couplings remain non-automatic. It may be pointed out that the general employment of side buffers in Europe greatly complicates the problem of designing a satisfactory automatic coupling, while to do away with them and substitute the combined buffer-coupling, such as is used in the United States, would entail enormous difficulties in carrying on the traffic during the transition stage.
During the ensuing thirteen years Aberdeen took a less prominent part in public affairs, although he succeeded in passing the Entail (Scotland) Act of 1825.
The statute of 1685, conferring on landlords a power to entail their estates, was indeed of a very different tendency in regard to its effects on agriculture.
The latter's son Henry (1746-1812) became 3rd duke, and in 1810 succeeded also, on the death of William Douglas, 4th duke of Queensberry, to that dukedom as well as its estates and other honours, according to the entail executed by his own great-grandfather, the 2nd duke of Queensberry, in 1706; he married the duke of Montagu's daughter, and was famous for his generosity and benefactions.
Austria was continuing to arm; and the emperor perceived that the diplomatic failure at Erfurt was now about to entail on him another and more serious struggle.
This conclusion can hardly entail less than a belief that, at any rate, the mass of those who possessed this civilization continued racially the same.
2), curatores bonis (Judicial Factors [Scotland] Act 1889) and heirs of entail (cf.
In 1358 the parte Guelfa made these enactments still more stringent, punishing with death or heavy fines all who being Ghibellines held office, and provided that if trustworthy witnesses were forthcoming condemnations might be passed for this offence without hearing the accused; even a non-proved charge or an ammonizione (warning not to accept office) might entail disfranchisement.
The minute plainly stated that it had become a question whether the continued enjoyment of advantages resulting from the importation of cheap bounty-fed sugar to some British industries did not involve the ruin of the British sugar-producing colonies; and that he was not prepared, as secretary of state for the colonies, to accept the responsibility of allowing matters to take their course and to acquiesce in the policy of non-intervention hitherto pursued in regard to the bounties without having satisfied himself as to what such a policy might entail as regarded both the colonies and the exchequer.
It was in reference to this incident that Pope, whose Catholic rearing made him detest the abettor of the Revolution and the champion of William of Orange, wrote in the Dunciad- "Earless on high stands unabash'd Defoe" - though he knew that the sentence to the pillory had long ceased to entail the loss of ears.
As to the provisions of this natural law, and the consequences they entail in individual cases, these can be decided only by the Church, i.e.
The pope in a forcible though formally courteous manner pointed out to him the evil results which his neglect of his royal duties would entail on his subjects, and called on him to appoint one of the Habsburg princes his successor both to the imperial crown and to the thrones of Bohemia and Hungary.
The entail of the former was " to him and his heirs the kings of England " and of the latter " to him and his heirs the first-begotten sons of the kings of England.
Kossuth, indeed, was not content with advocating those reforms - the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens, taxation of the nobles - which were demanded by all the Liberals.
After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity and energy.
When a proposal was set on foot to bring about a reconciliation between the Roman Church and the Christian Churches of the East, the Abbe Duchesne endeavoured to show that the union of those churches was possible under the Roman supremacy, because unity did not necessarily entail uniformity.
Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
For Ultramontanism fears that any infusion of a national element into ecclesiastical life would entail the eventual independence of the people in question from papal control, and lead to developments opposed to its papalistic mode of thought.
Yet Aristippus was compelled to admit that some actions which give immediate pleasure entail more than their equivalent of pain.
These perpetually occurring disasters entail a heavy expense on the government; and from the mere pecuniary point of view it would well repay them to call in the best foreign engineering skill available, an expedient, however, which has not commended itself to the Chinese authorities.
In 1291 James succeeded Alphonso in the kingdom of Aragon, and left Frederick not king, according to the entail, but only his lieutenant in Sicily.
The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted for by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in 1685.
Of the measures proposed to this end he says: "I considered four, passed or reported, as forming a system by which every trace would be eradicated of ancient or future aristocracy, and a foundation laid for a government truly republican" - the repeal of the laws of entail; the abolition of primogeniture and the unequal division of inheritances (Jefferson was himself an eldest son); the guarantee of freedom of conscience and relief of the people from supporting, by taxation, an established church; and a system of general education.
Finding in the cultivation of " virtue " or " excellence " a substitute for the pursuit of scientific truth, and in disputation the sole means by which " virtue " or " excellence " could be attained, he resembled at once the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic. But, inasmuch as the " virtue " or " excellence " which he sought was that of the man rather than that of the official, while the disputation which he practised had for its aim, not victory, but the elimination of error, the differences which separated him from the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic were only less considerable than the resemblances which he bore to both; and further, though his whole time and attention were bestowed upon the education of young Athenians, his theory of the relations of teacher and pupil differed from that of the recognized professors of education, inasmuch as the taking of fees seemed to him to entail a base surrender of the teacher's independence.
In addition most of them follow the rule of primogeniture, while a power of entail has recently been granted.
The province declined in wealth and population during the 18th and 19th centuries, a result due less to the want of activity on the part of the inhabitants than to the oppressive manorial and feudal rights and the strict laws of entail and mortmain, which acted as barriers to progress.
A mockery of popular institutions, under the name of a burgher council, indeed existed; but this was a mere delusion, and must not be confounded with the system of local government by means of district burgher councils which that most able man, Commissioner de Mist, sought to establish during the brief government of the Batavian Republic from 1803 to 1806, when the Dutch nation, convinced and ashamed of the false policy by which they had permitted a mere money-making association to disgrace the Batavian name, and to entail degradation on what might have been a free and prosperous colony, sought to redeem their error by making this country a national colonial possession, instead of a slavish property, to be neglected, oppressed or ruined, as the caprice or avarice of its merchant owners might dictate.
But the Catholics feared that the Italian national movement, when once started, would entail the downfall of the papacy; and in opposition to the emperor's Italian advisers, Arese and Prince Jerome Napoleon, they pitted the empress, who was frivolous and capricious, but an ardent Catholic. Napoleon III.
Aphides often ruin whole crops of fruit, corn, hops, &c., by sucking out the sap, and not only check growth, but may even entail the death of the plant.
3) and to heirs of entail (Entail Acts 1840, 1849, 1882).
Nor did the emperor's fall by any means entail the fall of his ideas; Count Joseph de Maistre, the great orator of ultramontanism, did little more than transplant them on to the ecclesiastical domain.
The minds of the native regiments quartered there were maddened by rumours of the defilement which the new Minie cartridges would entail upon them, and incendiary fires broke out in the lines.
If Whiggism could be proved to entail Dissent, he was prepared to abandon it.
Entail Act 1882, ss.