The account which has come down to us is that Mantegna began engraving in Rome, prompted by the engravings produced by Baccio Baldini of Florence after Sandro Botticelli; nor is there anything positive to invalidate this account, except the consideration that it would consign all the numerous and elaborate engravings made by Mantegna to the last sixteen or seventeen years of his life, which seems a scanty space for them, and besides the earlier engravings indicate an earlier period of his artistic style.
Some recent connoisseurs, however, ask us to restrict to seven the number of his genuine extant engravings - which appears unreasonable.
Several of his engravings are supposed to be executed on some metal less hard than copper.
Armillary spheres occur in many old sculptures, paintings and engravings; and from these sources we know that they were made for suspension, for resting on the ground or on a table, for holding by a short handle, or either for holding or for resting on a stand.
The museum includes 3300 books, many being of the 15th and 16th centuries, a department of engravings, a Virginia Room with portraits and relics, some tapestries, an excellent collection of casts and valuable American archaeological specimens.
Fully admitting the extraordinary execution of the engravings, every ornithologist may perceive that as portraits of the birds they are of very unequal merit.
The engravings which these volumes contain are mostly bad copies, often of bad figures, though many are piracies from Bewick, and the whole is a most unsatisfactory performance.
The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
A very curious fresco, found in the cemetery of Calixtus, preserved by the engravings of the earlier investigators (Bottari, torn.
The term "iconography," once confined to the study of engravings, is now applied to the history of portrait images in Christian art, though it is also used with a qualifying adjective of Greek, Roman and other art.
So few examples of glass vessels of this period which have been painted in enamel have come down to us that it has been questioned whether that art was then practised; but several specimens have been described which can leave no doubt on the point; decisive examples are afforded by two cups found at Vaspelev, in Denmark, engravings of which are published in the Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndeghed for 1861, p. 305.
At the present day bottles and drinkingvessels are made in Persia which in texture and quality differ little from ordinary Venetian glass of the 16th or 17th centuries, while in form they exactly resemble those which may be seen in the engravings in Chardin's Travels.
The Biblioteca Marucelliana, founded in 1752, contains 150,000 books, including 620 incunabula, 17,000 engravings and 1500 MSS.; it is well managed and chiefly remarkable for its collection of illustrated works and art publications.
Next come the imperial treasury at the Hofburg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 drawings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal.
It also affords accommodation to more than 300,000 engravings, over 20,000 drawings, and a large collection of vases.
It was during the delivery of one of his Advent sermons that he beheld the celebrated vision, recorded in contemporary medals and engravings, that is almost a symbol of his doctrines.
Stadel in 1816, contains a picture gallery and a cabinet of engravings extremely rich in works of German art.
It is to Moronobu that Japan owes the popularization of artistic wood-engravings, for nothing before his series of xylographic albums approached his best work in strength and beauty, and nothing since has surpassed it.
Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Samuel Johnson to the regular staff.
Wise, The New Forest (4th ed., 1883), with over sixty engravings by W.
Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
1778), a wealthy merchant, for the study of theology, natural science and art, and has lecture-theatres, a large library, and a museum containing a physical and a geological cabinet, as well as a collection of paintings, including many modern pictures, and a valuable collection of drawings and engravings by old masters.
The art museum, in Eden Park, contains paintings by celebrated European and American artists, statuary, engravings, etchings, metal work, wood carving, textile fabrics, pottery, and an excellent collection in American ethnology and archaeology.
Noteworthy also are the collection of the Society of Dutch Literature (1766); the collections of casts and of engravings; the seamen's training school; the Remonstrant seminary, transferred hither from Amsterdam in 1873; the two hospitals (one of which is private); the house of correction; and the court-house.
He caused engravings to be made, at his own expense, of Bartoli's copies from ancient pictures and published Nouveaux sujets de peinture et de sculpture (1755) and Tableaux tires de l'Iliade, de l'Odysse, et de l'Eneide (1757).
Its rooms form a museum of engravings and other records of Raphael's works, together with a picture of the Madonna by his father, Giovanni Santi, formerly thought to be by Raphael himself.
Besides the picture gallery the museum includes a magnificent collection of engravings and drawings.
The Stones of Venice was illustrated with engravings by some of the most refined artists of his time.
The museums of the city comprise an ethnographical museum, the maritime museum established by the Yacht Club in 1874, and the Boyman's Museum (1867) containing pictures, drawings and engravings, as well as the town library.
Of works certainly executed by him during his years of travel there are extant, besides the Basel wood-block, only a much-injured portrait of himself, very finely dressed and in the first bloom of his admirable manly beauty, dated 1493 and originally painted on vellum but since transferred to canvas (this is the portrait of the Felix Goldschmid collection); a miniature painting on vellum at Vienna (a small figure of the Child-Christ); and some half a dozen drawings, of which the most important are the characteristic pen portrait of himself at Erlangen, with a Holy Family on the reverse much in the manner of Schongauer; another Holy Family in nearly the same style at Berlin; a study from the female nude in the Bonnat collection; a man and woman on horseback in Berlin; a man on horseback, and an executioner about to behead a young man, at the British Museum, &c. These drawings all show Diirer intent above all things on the sternly accurate delineation of ungeneralized individual forms by means of strongly accented outline and shadings curved, somewhat like the shadings of Martin Schongauer's engravings, so as to follow their modellings and roundness.
The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.
Just as books were the means of multiplying, cheapening and disseminating ideas, so engravings on copper or wood were the means of multiplying, cheapening and disseminating images which gave vividness to the ideas, or served, for those ignorant of letters, in their stead.
Independently of the illustration of written or printed books, for which purpose woodcuts were almost exclusively used, separate engravings or sets of engravings in both kinds were produced, the more finely wrought and more expensive, appealing especially to the more educated classes, on copper, the bolder, simpler and cheaper on wood; and both kinds found a ready sale at all the markets, fairs and church festivals of the land.
In these early engravings the highly-wrought landscape backgrounds, whenever they occur, are generally the most satisfying feature.
The Venetian painter etcher, Jacopo de Barbari, whom Darer had already, it would seem, met in Venice in 1494-1495, and by the example of whose engravings he had already been much influenced, came to settle for a while in Nuremberg in 1500.
Diirer's engravings, both on copper and wood, had by this time attained great popularity both north and south of the Alps, and had begun to be copied by various hands, among others by the celebrated Marcantonio of Bologna, then in his youth.
In the meantime Darer had added a few to the number of his line-engravings and had completed the two woodcut series of the Great Passion, begun about 1498-1499, and the Life of the Virgin.
Besides such fine single woodcuts as the "Mass of St Gregory," the "St Christopher," the "St Jerome," and two Holy Families of 1511, Darer published in the same year the most numerous and popularly conceived of all his woodcut series, that known from the dimensions of its thirty-seven subjects as the "Little Passion" on wood; and in the next year, 1512, a set of fifteen small copper-engravings on the same theme, the "Little Passion" on copper.
Among engravings of the same time are three Madonnas, the apostles Thomas and Paul, a bagpiper and two peasants dancing, and three or four experiments in etching on plates of iron and zinc. In wood-engraving his energies were almost entirely given to bearing a part - which modern research has proved to have been not nearly so large as was traditionally supposed - in the great decorative schemes commanded by the Emperor Max in his own honour, and devised and carried out by a whole corps of men of letters and artists: namely, the Triumphal Gate ..and the Triumphal March or Procession.
Other paintings of this and the succeeding year we may seek for in vain; but in line engravings we have four more Madonnas, two St Christophers, one or two more peasant subjects, the well-known St Anthony with the view of Nuremberg in the background, and the smaller of the two portraits of the Cardinal-Elector of Mainz; and in wood-, engraving several fine heraldic pieces, including the arms of Nuremberg.
Koehler, A Chronological Catalogue of the Engravings, Dry Points and Etchings of A.
A folio series of engravings from these paintings was published in Florence, in 1852.
He also wrote short explanatory introductions and notes to a collection of copper-plate engravings, much valued by connoisseurs, called Histoires du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, representees par des figures gravees en taille-douce par R.
In 1712 he published a carefully punctuated and annotated edition (folio 1712, octavo 1720) of Caesar's Commentaries, with elegant engravings, dedicated to the duke of Marlborough.
Apart from the beauty of the works they produced, this art had a special importance and interest from its having led the way to the invention of printing from engravings on metal plates (see Line-Engraving).
His boyhood was passed working in his father's fields, but the sight of the engravings in an old illustrated Bible set him drawing, and thenceforth, whilst the others slept, the daily hour of rest was spent by Millet in trying to render the familiar scenes around him.
Blocks cut with a knife on wood plankwise, as distinct from wood engravings which are cut with a burin on the end grain, a more modern innovation.
It contains only some small books, some engravings, a few lenses and the instruments to polish them."
He made at Vienna an important collection of paintings and engravings, which came into the possession of the Hungarian Academy at Budapest in 1865.
The free library and art gallery of the corporation, a fourstoreyed building in Italian style erected in 1887, contains the library of the Rev. Rowland Williams (one of the authors of Essays and Reviews), the rich Welsh collection of the Rev. Robert Jones of Rotherhithe, a small Devonian section (presented by the Swansea Devonian Society), and about 8000 volumes and 2500 prints and engravings, intended to be mutually illustrative, given by the Swansea portrait-painter and art critic, John Deffett Francis, from 1876 to 1881, to receive whose first gift the library was established in 1876.