Ivory Panels With Line Engraving; From Nimrud.
For the nature and method of preparing these surfaces see respectively Engraving (and allied articles), Lithography and Typography.
Most dictionaries contain an engraving of the manual letters.
Although a little engraving on copper has been practised in Japan of late years, it is of no artistic value, and the only branch of the art which calls for recognition is the Engraving.
Technically one of these arts, that of line-engraving on copper, sprang from the craft of the goldsmith and metal-chaser; while that of woodengraving sprang from the craft of the printers of pattern-blocks and playing cards.
Facing the Mall on the south is the home of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, in which the United States paper money and postage stamps are made.
All this while, the minor arts of enamelling, miniature, glass-painting, goldsmith's work, jewellery, engraving, tapestry, wood-carving, pottery, &c., were cultivated with a spontaneity and freedom which proved that France, in the middle point between Flanders and Italy, was able to use both influences without a sacrifice of native taste.
De Belgique (1857); Duchesne, Nielles des orfevres florentins (1826); Passavant, Le Peintre-graveur (1860-1864); Ottley, History of Engraving (1816) and Collection of Facsimiles of Prints (1826); Cicognara, Storia della scultura, iii.
Gem-engraving and jewelry follow similar lines; pottery-painting for the most part remains geometrical throughout, with crude survivals of Mycenaean curvilinear forms. Those Aegean influences, however, which had been predominant in the later Bronze Age, and had never wholly ceased, revived, as Hellenism matured and spread, and slowly repelled the mixed Phoenician orientalism.
In a cottage in the environs of Paris called Le Moulin joli, there sat at the same table an old man engraving and an old woman whom he called his meuniere also engraving.
It has been suggested that he began engraving while still in Padua, under the tuition of a distinguished goldsmith, Niccolo.
Mantegna has sometimes been credited with the important invention of engraving with the burin on copper.
He now employed himself in making optical glasses, and in engraving on metal, devoting his spare time to the perusal of works on mathematics and optics.
The beginnings of a school of wall painting also go back to the Middle Minoan period, and metal technique and such arts as gem engraving show great advance.
In 1766 he was apprenticed to a storekeeper at Salem, in New England, and while in that employment occupied himself in chemical and mechanical experiments, as well as in engraving, in which he attained to some proficiency.
Wood engraving kept its ground for a considerable period, especially in Germany, but copper in the end supplanted it, and owing to the beauty and clearness of the maps produced by a combination of engraving and etching it still maintains its ground.
The work is either engraved upon the stone (which yields the most satisfactory result at half the cost of copper-engraving), or it is drawn upon the stone by pen, brush M.
The saving in time and cost by adopting this process is considerable, for a plan, the engraving of which takes two years, can now be produced in two days.
The original drawings for this map had to be done with exceptional neatness, the draughtsman spending twelve months on that which he would have completed in four months had it been intended to engrave the map on copper; yet an average chart, measuring 530 by 630 mm., which would have taken two years and nine months for drawing and engraving, was completed in less than fifteen months - fifty days of which were spent in " retouching " the copper plate.
A plan, the engraving of which formerly took two years, can now be produced in two days.
The first edition also gives an engraving of the ark (repeated in the editions up to the fifth), in shape like a long roofed box, floating on the waters; the animals are seen in separate stalls.
Braun and Hogenberg's map was published in 1572-1573, and the so-called Agas's map was probably produced soon afterwards, and was doubtless influenced by the publication of Braun and Hogenberg's excellent engraving; Norden's maps of London and Westminster are dated 1593.
Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold.
Engraving is a process of drawing on glass by means of small copper wheels.
The true use of engraving is to add interest to vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions and graceful outlines.
George Schwanhart, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glass-cutting at Ratisbon, and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving glass in Nuremberg.
To the Germans must be credited the discovery, or development, of colourless potash-lime glass, the reintroduction of the crafts of cutting and engraving on glass, the invention by H.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the processes of scratching, engraving and etching were brought to great perfection.
Painting and Engraving.Tn Japanese art the impressionist element is predominant.
But before accepting this conclusion as final, one must not lose sight of the fact that the so-called chiaroscuro engraving was at the height of its use in Italy at the same time that embassies from thc Christians in Japan visited Rome, and that it is thus possiblc that the suggestion at least may have been derived from Europe.
The engraving is as good as ever.
With regard to incised chiselling, the commonest form is kebori (hair-carving), which may be called engraving, the lines being of uniform thickness and depth.
Evidently the idea of the great Yokoya experts, the originators of the style, was to break away from the somewhat formal monotony of ordinary engraving, where each line performs exactly the same function, and to convert the chisel into an artists i It is first boiled in a lye obtained by lixiviating wood ashes; it is next polished with charcoal powder; then immersed in plum vinegar and salt; then washed with weak lye and placed in a, tub of water to remove all traces of alkali, the final step being to digest in a boiling solution of copper sulphate, verdigris and water.
It was sent from India to Emmanuel, king of Portugal, in 1513; and from a sketch taken in Lisbon, Albert Diirer composed his celebrated but fanciful engraving, which was reproduced in so many old books on natural history.
All are illustrated, and three in particular, the Century, Scribner's and Harper's, carried the art of wood-engraving to a high"standard of excellence.
If we add to pictures of this class a few Scriptural subjects, a few Oriental dreams, one or two of tender sentiment like "Wedded" (one of the most popular of his pictures, and well known by not only an engraving, but a statuette modelled by an Italian sculptor), a number of studies of very various types of female beauty, "Teresina," "Biondina," "Bianca," "Moretta," &c., and an occasional portrait, we shall nearly exhaust the two classes into which Lord Leighton's work (as a painter) can be divided.
That the distances traversed by the molecules of a solid are very small in extent is shown by innumerable facts of everyday observation, as for instance, the fact that the surface of a finely-carved metal (such as a plate used for steel engraving) will retain its exact shape for centuries, or again, the fact that when a metal body is coated with gold-leaf the molecules of the gold remain on its surface indefinitely: if they moved through.
(1661), from the French of Gabriel Naude; Tyrannus or the Mode, in a Discourse of Sumptuary Laws (1661); Sculptura: or the History and Art of Chalcography and Engraving in Copper..
But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
There is a school of industrial art (engraving and enamelling watch cases) and a school of watch-making (including instruction in the manufacture of chronometers and other scientific instruments of precision).
I I) was certainly some other stone, for it bore the name of a tribe, and methods of engraving the true diamond cannot have been known so early.
The use of the diamond for other purposes than jewelry depends upon its extreme hardness: it has always been the only material used for cutting or engraving the diamond itself.
Diamonds are now employed not only for faceting precious stones, but also for cutting and drilling glass, porcelain, &c,; for fine engraving such as scales; in dentistry for drilling; as a turning tool for electric-light carbons, hard rubber, &c.; and occasionally for finishing accurate turning work such as the axle of a transit instrument.
He soon made himself known by a variety of useful mechanical inventions, and in 1818 came over to England with a plan for engraving bank-notes on steel, which ultimately proved a signal success, and was carried out by Perkins in partnership with the English engraver Heath.
There had been no one at Nuremberg skilled enough in the art of metal-engraving to teach it him to much purpose, and it had at one time been his father's intention to apprentice him to Martin Schongauer of Colmar, the most refined and accomplished German painter-engraver of his time.
Both kinds of engraving soon came to be in great demand.
The genius of Albrecht Diirer cannot be rightly estimated without taking into account the position which the arts of engraving on metal and on wood thus held in the culture of this time.
He was indeed professionally and in the first place a painter; but throughout his career a great, and on the whole the most successful, part of his industry was devoted to drawing on the block for the woodcutter or engraving with his own hand on copper.
At any rate a whole series of extant drawings enables us to trace the German gradually working out his own ideas of a canon of human proportion in the composition of his famous engraving of "Adam and Eve" (1504); which at first, as a drawing in the British Museum proves, had been intended to be an Apollo and Diana conceived on lines somewhat similar to one of Barbari's.
The first is the "Adam and Eve" dated 1507, in which both attitudes and proportions are as carefully calculated, though on a somewhat different scheme, as in the engraving of 1504.
In 1511 these two works were brought out for the first time, and the Apocalypse series in a second edition; and for the next three years, 1511-1514, engraving both on wood and copper, but especially the latter, took the first place among DUrer's activities.
In 1513 and 1514 appeared the three most famous of Darer's works in copper-engraving, "The Knight and Death" (or simply "The Knight," as he himself calls it, 1513), the "Melancolia" and the "St Jerome in his Study" (both 1514).
Besides these three masterpieces of line-engraving, the same years, 1512-1515, found DUrer occupied with his most important experiments in etching, both in dry-point ("The Holy Family and Saints" and the "St Jerome in the Wilderness") and with the acid bath.
Among engravings of the same time are three Madonnas, the apostles Thomas and Paul, a bagpiper and two peasants dancing, and three or four experiments in etching on plates of iron and zinc. In wood-engraving his energies were almost entirely given to bearing a part - which modern research has proved to have been not nearly so large as was traditionally supposed - in the great decorative schemes commanded by the Emperor Max in his own honour, and devised and carried out by a whole corps of men of letters and artists: namely, the Triumphal Gate ..and the Triumphal March or Procession.
Other paintings of this and the succeeding year we may seek for in vain; but in line engravings we have four more Madonnas, two St Christophers, one or two more peasant subjects, the well-known St Anthony with the view of Nuremberg in the background, and the smaller of the two portraits of the Cardinal-Elector of Mainz; and in wood-, engraving several fine heraldic pieces, including the arms of Nuremberg.
In copper-engraving Diirer's work during the same years was confined entirely to portraits, those of the cardinal-elector of Mainz ("The Great Cardinal"), Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Willibald Pirkheimer, Melanchthon and Erasmus.
Strutt also gives an engraving, assigned by him to the 14th century, in which three hunters, one of whom blows a horn, are represented as unearthing a fox, which is pursued by a single hound.
Its industrial importance is shown by the fact that it is the site of the West Swiss technical institute, which has departments for instruction in watch-making, in electricity, in engraving and chasing, and in subjects relating to railway, postal and telegraph matters.
There is also an active trade in embossing or engraving copper and brass utensils.
In 1905 the government's printing and publishing cost $5,999,99 6; its ordnance and ordnance stores (in the Navy Yard on the bank of the Anacostia river), $5,331,459; and its engraving and plate printing, $3,499,5:7.
Modelling in terra-cotta, sculpture in stone and ivory, engraving on, gems, were following it closely by the beginning of the 2nd millennium.
This art and those of frescoand vase-painting and of gem-engraving stood higher about the z 5th century B.C. than at any subsequent period before the 6th century.
In copper-engraving Diirer was at the same time diligently training himself to develop the methods practised by Martin Schongauer and earlier masters into one suitable for his own self-expression.