The state has considerably improved the engines and passenger carriages.
Smith on " Express Locomotive Engines," Proc. Inst.
From falling off, or when getting on or off, engines or vehicles at rest 3 1,504 7.
The scene was defined by a cluster of police cars and fire engines bathed in rotating lights.
The engines purred to life.
The last two of these engines broke down under trial, but the Rocket fulfilled the conditions and won the prize.
After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.
Apart from collisions and derailments, a large proportion of all accidents is found to be due primarily to want of care on the part of the victims. Accidents to workmen in marshalling, shunting, distributing and running trains, engines and cars, may be taken as the most important class, after train accidents, because this work is necessary and important and yet involves considerable hazard.
When getting on or off, or falling off engines, wagons, &c..
From falling off trains, engines, &c., in motion io.
When getting on or off engines, vans, &c., during the running of trains.
While attending to the machinery, &c., of " engines in motion.
While attending to engines at rest 4 2,479 6.
Bursting of boilers or tubes, &c., of engines 13.
Failure of machinery, springs, &c., of engines 14.
A terminal station embraces (I) the passenger station; (2) the goods station; (3) the locomotive, carriage and waggon depots, where the engines and the carrying stock are kept, cleaned, examined and repaired.
In order to keep down the expense of shunting the empty trains and engines to and from the platforms the carriage and locomotive depots should be as near the passenger station as possible; but often the price of land renders it impracticable to locate them in the immediate vicinity and they are to be found at a distance of several miles.
One of the advantages of electric trains on the multiple control system is that they economize terminal accommodation, because they can be driven from either end indifferently, and therefore avoid the necessity for tracks by which engines can change from one end of the train to the other.
At busy stations separate tracks are sometimes appropriated to the use of light engines and empty trains, on which they may be run between the platforms and the locomotive and Loco- carriage depots.
At a locomotive depot the chief building is the " running shed " in which the engines are housed and cleaned.
This may be rectangular in shape (" straight " shed), containing a series of parallel tracks on which the engines stand and which are reached by means of points and crossings diverging from a main track outside; or it may take a polygonal or circular form (round house or rotunda), the lines for the engines radiating from a turn-table which occupies the centre and can be rotated so as to serve any of the radiating lines.
In both types pits are constructed between the rails on which the engines stand to afford easy access for the inspection and cleaning of their mechanism.
Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.
A locomotive depot further includes stores of the various materials required in working the engines, coal stages at which they are loaded with coal, and an ample supply of water.
The water cranes or towers which are placed at intervals along the railway to supply the engines with water require similar care in regard to the quality of the water laid on to them, as also to the water troughs, or track tanks as they are called in America, by which engines are able to pick up water without stopping.
These engines have a pole projecting horizontally in front of them, or are attached to a " polecar " having such a pole.
Value of the tractive force is required than this provides for, namely from 4 to 5 tons, the driving-wheels are coupled to one or more pairs of heavily loaded wheels, forming a class of what are called " coupled engines " in contradistinction to the " single engine " with a single pair of loaded driving-wheels.
Six-coupled express passenger engines designed by G.
Per hour is given in The Balancing of Engines by W.
With exceptionally bad weather the load would have to be reduced or two engines would have to be employed, or an exceptionally high rate of combustion would have to be maintained in the fire-box.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
In the course of his retreat he was attacked by the Jews and fled to Antioch, leaving them his engines of war.
It is not possible to do anything better with two-cylinder locomotives unless bobweights be added, but with four-cylinder four-crank engines complete balance is possible both in the vertical and in the horizontal directions.
The principles by means of which the magnitude and position of balance weights are worked out are given in the article Mechanics (Applied Mechanics), and the whole subject of locomotive balancing is exhaustively treated with numerous numerical examples in The Balancing of Engines by W.
Locomotives may be classified primarily into " tender engines " and " tank engines," the water and fuel in the latter being carried on the engine proper, while in the former they are carried in a separate vehicle.
A classification may also be made, according to the work for which engines are designed, into passenger engines, goods engines, and shunting or switching engines.
Engines of this class, with 78-inch driving wheels and the leading axle fitted with Webb's radial axle-box, for many years did excellent work on the London & North-Western railway.
The design combines ample boiler capacity with large adhesive weight and moderate axle loads, but except on heavy gradients or for unusually large trains requiring engines of great adhesion, passenger traffic can be more efficiently and economically handled by four-coupled locomotives of the eight-wheel or Atlantic types.
These are generally tank engines, carrying their fuel and water on the engine proper.
- The demand of the present day is for engines of larger power both for passenger and goods service, and the problem is to design such engines within the limitations fixed by the 4 ft.