Reinforcements from Ismailia were ordered up, and the British cavalry, operating on the right, helped to check the enemys attack, which showed little vigour.
At dawn the Highland Brigade of the 2nd Division struck the enemys trenches, and carried them after a brief struggle.
The 1st Division attacked a few minutes later, and the cavalry swept round the left of the line of entrenchments, cutting down any fugitives who attempted resistance and reaching the enemys camp in rear.
For purposes of defence the rank and file merely carried a light hide-covered shield; which the infantry, in shooting, planted before them as a sort of barrier against the enemys missiles.
Dealt with, the enemys towns were spared, except when grave offences and insurrections, as at Miletus and Athens, rendered punishment imperative; and their inhabitants were treated with mildness.
The nucleus of the army was formed of armoured horsemen, excellently practised for long-distance fighting with bow and javelin, but totally unable to venture on a hand-to-hand conflict, their tactics being rather to swarm round the enemys squadrons and overwhelm them under a hail of missiles.
The wali of Arabia commenced the battle by attacking the left wing of the Afghans with great fury, routing it, and plundering their camp. The prime minister immediately afterwards attacked the enemys right wing, but was routed, and the Afghans, taking advantage of the confusion, captured the Persian guns and turned them on the Persian centre, who fled in confusion without striking a blow.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.