TAPEWORMS. The Cestodes or Tapeworms form a class of purely endoparasitic Platyelmia, characterized by their elongate shape, segmented bodies, and the absence of a digestive system.
A, in endoparasitic Trematodes (Malacotylea).
In most endoparasitic Trematodes the accessory gonopore is a median and dorsal structure.
The excretory pore is terminal and posterior in endoparasitic forms: paired, anterior and dorsal in the ectoparasitic class.
If ectoparasitic and attached to the skin, apertures or gills, the Trematode adopts more elaborate adhesive organs and undergoes a less complex development than are required for the endoparasitic members of the class.
It is usual to consider the ectoparasitic habit as leading up to the endoparasitic one.
The rapid multiplication that takes place in the larval stage of nearly all endoparasitic forms affects the tissues of the "intermediate" host in which they live.
In the endoparasitic trematodes the uterus is the only passage by which fertilization can be effected, and in cases of cross and selfimpregnation this duct is physiologically a vagina.
Endoparasitic Trematodes with a variable adhesive apparatus.
The Trematodes are somewhat modified in accordance with their ectoor endoparasitic life, but they exhibit such a close similarity of structure with the Turbellaria that their origin from Planarians can hardly be doubted, and indeed the Temnocephaloidea (see Planarians) form an almost ideal annectant group linking the ectoparasitic Trematodes and Rhabdocoel Planarians.