Ferns are prominent among the flora, about one-third of which consists of endemic species.
Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species became differentiated during their isolation.
In England materialism has been endemic, so to speak, from Hobbes to the present time, and English materialism is more important perhaps than that of any other country.
In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.
On the other hand, it is rich in Cornpositae, especially Solidago and A ster, Polemoniaceae, Asciepiadaceae, Hydrophyllaceae and Cyperaceae, and it has the endemic Sarracenia, type of a family structurally allied to poppies, of which of the remaining genera Darlingtonia is Californian, and Heliamphora Venezuelan.
Christ, while admitting an ancient endemic element, such as Cam panula excise in the arctic-alpine flora of Europe, objects that a Scandinavian colonization could not furnish such characteristic plants as the larch and edelweiss.
Of species common to the two, Maximowicz finds that Manchuria possesses 40% and scarcely 9% that are endemic. Of a collection of about 500 species made in that country by Sir Henry James nearly a third are British.
Species are known out of a probable total of not less than 12,000, and of these more than half are endemic. The number of species to a genus, 3, is only half that found in other large areas.
This aggregation of genera and of endemic species is characteristic of the circumferential portions of the earths land surface: the expansion of the one and the further advance of the other is arrested.
Amongst Ternstroemiaceae, the singular Marcgravieae are endemic. So also are the Vochysiaceae allied to the milkworts.
Aroids, of which the tribes are not restricted in their distribution, have two large endemic genera, Philodendron and Anthurium.
Out of the 860 indigenous plants, 80% are endemic, but Hillebrand finds that a large nun.mber are of American affinity.
Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.
Three-quarters of the native species are endemic; they seem, however, to be quite unable to resist the invasion of new-comers, and already 600 plants of foreign origin have succeeded in establishing themselves.
Most notable of all, yellow fever was eradicated where it had been endemic for centuries.
Q Y imam of Sana, necessitated the despatch of large and costly expeditions to Arabia, in which thousands of Turkish .troops have fallen in guerrilla warfare or through the inhospitable climate; in Albania disturbance became almost endemic, owing to the resistance offered by the intractable population to successive attempts of the central authorities to subject the country to regular taxation and the operation of the laws.
Smallpox also is practically endemic, owing in great part to negligent sanitary supervision.
As a result of their isolation, the proportion of endemic plants is greater here than in any other region, and the great elevation of the mountains, with the consequent variation in temperature, moisture and barometric pressure, has multiplied the number of species.
There is also a large percentage of endemic species.
There are 67 species of birds known from Sokotra, of which 15 are endemic; of 22 reptiles, 3 genera and 14 species are peculiar; and of the land and fresh-water shells, to whose distribution great importance attaches, 44 species out of 47 are confined to the island.
Among the other invertebrate groups there is also a large proportion of endemic species.
The climate is now less healthy than it was, severe epidemics of malarial fever having frequently occurred, so that malaria now appears to be endemic among the non-European population.
Smallpox, dysentery and fevers, frequently of a bilious character, are endemic and occasionally epidemic. Cholera breaks out from time to time and works great havoc, as was the case in 1903 when one of the raja of Sarawak's punitive expeditions was stricken while ascending the Limbang river by boat, and lost many hundreds of its numbers before the coast could be regained.
He created many of the medical terms we use today, such as acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic, paroxysm, and relapse.