The enamelled decoration on the lamps is restricted to lettering, scrolls and conventional foliage; on other objects figure-subjects of all descriptions are freely used.
The enamelling process was probably introduced in the early part of the 13th century; most of the enamelled mosque lamps belong to the 14th century.
Read has pointed out a curious feature in the construction of the enamelled beakers.
IThe artists of this school show also much skill in using enamels for the purposes of subordinate decorationsuspending enamelled butterflies, birds or floral sprays, among the reticulations of a silver vase chiselled a jour; or filling with translucid enamels parts of a decorative scheme sculptured in iron, silver, gold or shakudo.
Interior courts are of Maryland granite and white enamelled bricks.
The "Luck of Eden Hall," which has been celebrated in a ballad by the duke of Wharton, and in a second ballad written by Uhland, the German poet, and translated by Longfellow, is an enamelled goblet, kept in a leathern case dating from the times of Henry IV.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
We have in the work of the monk Theophilus, Diversarum artium schedula, and in the probably earlier work of Eraclius, about the iith century, instructions as to the art of glass-making in general, and also as to the production of coloured and enamelled vessels, which these writers speak of as being practised by the Greeks.
The enamelled Saracenic glasses take the form of flasks, vases, goblets, beakers and mosque lamps.
The earliest example which has as yet been described - a cup of blue glass, enamelled and gilt - is, however, not earlier than about 1440.
Many specimens exist of German winged and enamelled glasses of Venetian character.
At Nimrud (Calah) were also excavated, and hundreds of enamelled tiles were disinterred.
The use of brick led to the early development of the pilaster and column, as well as of frescoes and enamelled tiles.
Sometimes linings of enamelled iron or other material are employed, which when worn can be replaced at a far lower cost than that of a new still.
There are three chief varieties of Hizen ware, namely, (1) the enamelled porcelain of Aritathe old Japan of European collectors; (2) the enamelled porcelain of Nabeshima; and Hizen (3) the blue and white, or plain white, porcelain of Hirado.
Softness of its glaze, the comparative sparseness of its enamelled decoration, and the relegation of blue sous couverte to an entirely secondary place.
Setting aside, however, the strong improbability that a style of decoration so widely practised and so highly esteemed could have remained unknown during a century and a half to experts working for one of the most puissant chieftains in Japan, we have the evidence of trustworthy traditions and written records that enamelled faience was made by the potters at Tatsumonjithe principal factory of Satsuma-ware in early daysas far back as the year 1676.
Not until the close of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th did the more profuse fashion of enamelled decoration come to be largely employed.
Most of the finest pieces of enamelled faience were the work of artists at the Tadeno factory, while the best specimens of other kinds were by the artists of Tatsumonji.
Ao-Kutani, so called because of a green (ao) enamel of great brilliancy and beauty which was largely used in its decoration, and Kirtani with painted and enamelled pate varying from hard porcelain to pottery.
He took for his models the raku faience of KiOto, the masterpieces of Ninsei and Kenzan, the rococc wares of Korea, the enamelled porcelain of China, and the blue-andwhite ware of Delft.
Two faults, however, marred the workfirst, the shapes were clumsy and unpleasing, being copied from bronzes whose solidity justified forms unsuited to thin enamelled vessels; secondly, the colors, sombre and somewhat impure, lacked the glow and mellowness that give decorative superiority to the technically inferior Chinese enamels of the later Ming and early Tsing eras.
The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamelled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas.
The larger plaques are richly ornamented with emeralds and sapphires, and the smaller plaques have each an enamelled figure of Our Lord, David, Solomon, and Hezekiah respectively.
In this drawing the three crowns (a feature introduced at the beginning of the 14th century) are represented by three bands of X-shaped ornament in enamelled gold.
Among the other important manufactures in 1905 were: chemicals, valued at $3,964,726; slaughtering and meat packing, $2,933,877; varnish, $2,893,305; stamped ware, $2,689,766; enamelled goods, $2,361,350; boots and shoes, $2,382,051; reduction of gold and silver, not from ore, $2,361,350; corsets, $2,081,761; paints, $1,812,463; silverware and silver-smithing, $1,780,906; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $1,742,862; hardware, $ 1, 6 16, 755; buttons, $1,281,528, and saddlery hardware, $1,151,789.
While the ruins of Calah were remarkably rich in monumental material, enamelled bricks, bronze and ivory objects and the like, they yielded few of the inscribed clay tablets found in such great numbers at Nineveh and various Babylonian sites.
The subliming apparatus consists of two parts: (I) a hemispherical stoneware basin placed within a closefitting iron one, or an enamelled iron basin, and (2) a hemispherical lead or stoneware lid, or dome, cemented on the top of the basin to prevent leakage.
Slabs are also manufactured, and, being readily cut, planed, dressed and enamelled, are used for chimney pieces, billiard tables, wall linings, cisterns, paving, tomb-stones, ridge rolls, electrical switch-boards and various other architectural and industrial purposes.
The Ospedale del Ceppo, built originally in the 13th century, but remodelled in the 15th, is remarkable for the reliefs in enamelled and coloured terra-cotta with which its exterior is richly decorated.
The two inner enclosures were faced with enamelled tiles and represented hunting-scenes.
The road was paved with stone and its walls on either side lined with enamelled tiles, on which a procession of lions is represented.
Nebuchadrezzar says that he covered the walls of some of them with blue enamelled tiles "on which bulls and dragons were pourtrayed," and that he set up large bulls and serpents of bronze on their thresholds.
Iron, limestone and fire - clay are found in the vicinity; among the manufactures are iron and steel, glass, galvanized and enamelled ware, agricultural implements and stoves.
Porcelain, enamelled iron, for high concentrations even cast-iron without any protection, are also in use.
In diameter, and also single enamelled bricks, generally bearing an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, twisted, curled and broken, apparently by great heat.
Other industrial products are machinery, enamelled tinware, leather, alum, paper, earthenware, stoves and spirits, while a tolerably brisk trade is carried on in wool, feathers, cattle and horses.
The industries are growing, the chief being breweries and distilleries, saw-mills and planing-mills, shipbuilding, fish-curing, the manufacture of machinery, engines, bricks, resin, preserves, enamelled and tin goods, cigars, furniture, soap and leather.
All the common domestic utensils in tinned and enamelled ware, and all the ordinary patterns of the silversmiths, are similarly done.
Its principal manufactures are steel, enamelled ware, clay goods, brooms, flour and carriages.
Up from the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below enamelled blue and gold.