Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
Empusa), and similarly with basidiospores (Coprinus, Agaricus, &c.).
The mucilage surrounding endospores of Mucor, conidia of Empusa, &c., serves to gum the spore to animals.
The Entomophthoraceae contain three genera, Empusa, Entomophthora and Basidiobolus.
Empusa Muscae causes the wellknown epidemic in house-flies during the autumn; the dead, affected flies are often found attached to the window surrounded by a white halo of conidia.
Plagues of locusts occasionally, during a drought, ruin growing crops; in damp wet weather these insects are destroyed by a fungus growth (Empusa gryllae) within their bodies.