After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East, of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns, anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply, by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean.
On the one hand they led to the establishment of emporia in the East - for instance, Acre, and after the fall of Acre Famagusta, both in their day great centres of Levantine trade.
Daux, Recherches sur l'origine et l'emplacement des emporia pheniciens dans le Zeugis et le Byzacium (Paris, 1869); Ch.
Daux, Les Emporia pheniciens dans le Zeugis et le Byzacium (1869); Ludwig Muller, Numismatique de l'ancienne Afrique (1860-1862; Supplement, 1874); Ch.
When the inland trade fell away and the traffic of the coast towns took the sea route, the ancient metropolis and the numerous inland emporia came to ruin, while the many colonies in the north were broken up and their population dispersed.
During the 16th century Bruges, Antwerp and Amsterdam became the great emporia Dutch whence Indian produce, imported by the Portuguese,.
There is a considerable trade in French wines, for which Luneburg has for centuries been one of the chief emporia in north Germany, and also in grain and wool.
It is now generally admitted that the improvements of the alphabet were made by traders in the interests of commerce, and that these improvements began from the great Greek emporia of Asia Minor, above all from Miletus.
Other cities of above 5000 inhabitants were Hutchinson (9379), Emporia (8223), Parsons (7682), Ottawa (6934), Newton (6208), Arkansas City (6140), Salina (6074), Argentine (5878) and Iola (5791).
Other cities of above 5000 inhabitants each were: Chanute (9704), Emporia (8974), Winfield (7845), Salina (7829), Ottawa (7727), Arkansas City (7634), Newton (6601), Galena (6449), Argentine (6053), Junction City (5264) and Cherryvale (5089).
Of higher educational institutions, the state supports the university of Kansas at Lawrence (1866), an agricultural college at Manhattan (1863; aided by the United States government); a normal school at Emporia (1865), a western branch of the same at Hays (1902); a manual training normal school (1903) at Pittsburg, western university (Quindaro) for negroes and the Topeka industrial and educational institute (1896, reorganized on the plan of Tuskegee institute in 1900) also for negroes.
Among the many smaller colleges are Washburn College (Congregational, 1869) at Topeka, the Southwest Kansas College (Methodist Episcopal, opened 1886) at Winfield, the College of Emporia (Presbyterian, 1883) at Emporia, Bethany College (Lutheran, 1881) at Lindsborg, Fairmount College (non-sectarian, 1895) at Wichita, St Mary's College (Roman Catholic,1869)at St Mary's, and Ottawa University (Baptist, 1865) at Ottawa.