Its constant and impartial expositions of cases of over-work and insufficient training of employes have greatly helped to elevate the character of these employes.
Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.
The most attractive parts are the American quarter, where the employes of the Panama railway have their homes, and the old French quarter, where dwelt the French officers during their efforts to build the canal.
The safety of passengers is, indeed, the first care of the railway manager; but the employes, exposed to many risks from which the passengers are protected, must be looked after.
The number of employes killed in train accidents was 12.9 in 10 million train miles.
The mayor appoints practically all municipal employes and may veto any ordinance of the council; his veto, however, may be overridden by two-thirds of the council.
Duties on profession (temettu) consist (a) of a fixed duty leviable at rates declared in a schedule forming part of the special law (Dec. 8, 1907) regulating the tax, and (b) of a proportional duty at the rate of 3% on the value of buildings occupied by companies or individuals in the prosecution of their business; of 3% on salaries (subject to certain deductions) of employes of such companies and individuals; and on government contractors and revenue farmers, at the rate of 3% of 10% of the value of contracts filled and of revenues farmed.
With the exception of the engineer and foreman, the employes must be Ottoman subjects.
The superintendent appoints the teaching force, the director all other employes; appointments are subject to confirmation by the board, and all employes are subject to removal by the executive officials alone.
It had still further vices: not only were nobles and ecclesiastics exempt from it, but many other privileges had been introduced by law, total or partial exemption extending to a large number of civil and military officials and employes of the crown on the ferme generale.
The average number of employes in 1850 was 20,967; in 1890, 81,111; and in 1 The 1905 census of manufactures gives statistics only for establishments under the factory system, excluding the hand trades, and gives factory statistics for 1905 and for 1900.
1900, 98,813, of whom 88,197 were factory employes; in 1905 there were 97,318 factory employes.
The annual reports, of which he was the chief author, became controversial pamphlets; he published bold replies to criticisms upon the work of the Commission; he explained its purposes to newspaper correspondents; when Congress refused to appropriate the amount which he believed essential for the work, he made the necessary economies by abandoning examinations of candidates for the Civil Service in those districts whose representatives in Congress had voted to reduce the appropriation, thus very shrewdly bringing their adverse vote into disfavour among their own constituents; and during the six years of his commissionership more than twenty thousand positions for government employes were taken out of the realm of merely political appointment and added to the classified service to be obtained and retained for merit only.
While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.
He also established large pension funds - in 1 9 01 for his former employes at Homestead, and in 1905 for American college professors.
Their numbers were for a time kept up by the addition of fresh converts, but the employes who were not Harmonists soon greatly outnumbered the members of the community, the basis of which was always religious.
At the general census of 1901 the number of flouring and grist mill establishments, each employing five persons and over, was returned at 400, the number of employes being 4251 and the value of products $31,835,873.
A special census of manufactures in 1906 shows that these figures had grown in 1905 to 832 establishments, 5619 employes and $56,703,269 value of the products.
Among the enactments the following are the most important: - the institution of industrial and labour councils, composed of employers and social employes, and of a superior council, formed of officials, workmen and employers (1887); laws assisting the erection of workmen's dwellings and supervising the labour of women and children (1889); laws for ameliorating the system of Friendly Societies (1890); laws regulating workshops (1896); conferring corporate rights on trades' unions (1898); guaranteeing the security and health of working men during hours of labour (1899).
In this position, during the strike of the railway employes in Chicago in 1894, he instructed the district attorneys to secure from the Federal Courts writs of injunction restraining the strikers from acts of violence, and thus set a precedent for "government by injunction."
The city has a Carnegie library, a railway Young Men's Christian Association, and a hospital for the employes of the Wabash railroad.
An army of clerks in the numerous bureaus, hundreds of patient government employes, the ronds de cuir, as they are contemptuously called, because they sit for choice on round leather cushions, are engaged constantly writing and filling in forms for hours and hours, day after day.
The idea of the active capitalist having any duties towards his employes never seems to occur to him; the labourer is, in fact, merely an instrument in the hands of the capitalist, a pawn in the game he plays.
A state board of arbitration, composed of two farmers, two employers and two employes is authorized to investigate the causes of any strike affecting the public interests, and publish what it finds to be the facts in the case, together with recommendations for settlement.
These are (r) chiefs, greater and lesser; (2) priests; (3) Mata ni Vanua (lit., eyes of the land), employes, messengers or counsellors; (4) distinguished warriors of low birth; (5) common people; (6) slaves.
The number of rural establishments in 1900 was 1174; in 1905, 1179; and the number of urban establishments in 1900, 195; in 1905, 220; but the capitalization of the rural establishments increased from $50,057,922 in 1900 to $97,942,185 in 1905; while that of the urban increased from $12,692,105 to $15,480,039; the value of the products of the rural establishments increased from $41,930,816 to $ 6 4, 88 7,74 8; while that of the urban establishments increased from $11,404,995 to $14,488,514; and the number of employes in rural establishments increased from 36,616 to 50,744, while those in urban establishments increased from 7409 to 8697.
The number of hours' labour for operatives and employes in cotton and woollen mills is limited to sixty a week and must not exceed eleven in any one day, except for making up lost time to the extent of sixty hours in any one year.
The legislature framed a stringent anti-pass law, reduced passenger fares and express and freight charges, provided for equitable local taxation of railway terminals, regulated railway labour in the interest of safe travel, fixed upon railways the responsibility for the death or injury of their employes, and gave to the newly-created railway commission complete jurisdiction over all steam-railways in the state, over the street railways of the cities, and over express companies, telegraph companies, telephone companies and all other common carriers.
But abandonment was a policy most difficult to carry out, as it involved the withdrawal of thousands of Egyptian soldiers, civilian employes and their families.