They are composed of employers and workmen in equal numbers and are established by decree of the council of state, advised by the minister of justice.
The judges are elected by employers and workmen of a certain standing.
On the 6th of September the silver mines closed down, and a week later a conference of employers issued a manifesto which was met next day by a counter-manifesto of the Intercolonial Labour Conference, and almost immediately afterwards by the calling out of 40,000 men.
The Great Strike terminated early in November 1890, the employers gaining a decisive victory.
Its central enactment was to bring into existence (1) " Special Boards," consisting of an equal number of representatives of employers and workmen respectively in any trade, under the presidency of an independent chairman, and (2) a Court of Industrial Appeals.
A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.
On the 17th of April 1898 a species of Employers Liability Act compelled employers of more than five workmen in certain industries to insure their employees against accidents.
The purely selfish bond between condottieri and their employers, whether princes or republics, involved intrigues and treachery, checks and counterchecks, secret terror on the one hand and treasonable practice on the other, which ended by making statecraft in Italy synonymous with perfidy.
The year 1885 saw the introduction and adoption of a measure embodying the principle of employers liability for accidents to workmen, a principle subsequently extended and more equitably defined in the spring of 1899.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
Other acts which are of importance in connexion with accidents are the Accidents Compensation Act of 1846, the Employers' Liability Act of 1880, and the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1897.
Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.
(io) For more than one hundred years before the repeal of the act, trade unions and other forms of voluntary association amongst wage-earners, combinations amongst employers, collective agreements, customary regulations, were established in many of the important trades of the country.
The adoption of machinery gradually revolutionized the methods of production; but in the first instance only certain industries were affected, and those not at the same time or in the same degree; old laws grown obsolete were repealed, but other laws affecting wage-earners and employers took their place, more complicated and elaborate than the Elizabethan code.
Churchill's tenure of the presidency of the Board of Trade, from April 1908, was marked by the production of a scheme in the autumn of that year for the setting up of a court of arbitration in labour disputes, consisting of three persons nominated by the Board, respectively from panels of employers, workmen and " persons of eminence and impartiality."
His object was to found a great empire; but this was a project at variance with the wishes of his employers - an association of merchants, who were dissatisfied because the wealth which they expected to see flowing into their coffers was expended in promoting the permanent interests of a distant country.
Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.
Assyrian and afterwards Greek craftsmen working for Scythic employers were compelled to decorate these outlandish forms, which they did according to their own fashion: but there was also a native style with conventionalized beast decoration, which was almost always employed for the adornment of bits and horses' gear, and very often for weapons.
As a matter of fact, no man was more free or outspoken in his criticism of the policy of his employers than this apparently venal writer.
Many master craftsmen now became wealthy employers of labour, dealing extensively in the wares which they produced.
The formation of these societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class of artisans - a conflict between employers, or master artisans, and workmen.
The medieval form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of individual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the introduction of the factory system.
When employers import foreign labourers in order to take the place of their men who are on strike.
Acts have been passed extending the common-law liability of employers, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of sweat-shop clothing, and authorizing cities and towns to provide free lectures and to maintain public baths, gymnasia and playgrounds.
His successor, Alexander Mavrocordato, surnamed Exaporritos, was charged by the Turkish government with the delicate and arduous negotiation of the treaty of Carlowitz, and by his dexterity succeeded, in spite of his questionable fidelity to the interests of his employers, in gaining their entire confidence, and in becoming the factotum of Ottoman policy.
Such radical redistribution attempts are dangerous games, for the rich are creators of economic opportunity, not just for themselves, but as employers, for society.