The conditions of appointment of the emirs are fully laid down in the terms accepted at Sokoto on the close of the Sokoto-Kano campaign of 1903.
They in their turn distributed the lands so acquired among their sons and principal emirs on strictly feudal principles, the feudatory lands being styled ziamet and timar, a system long continued by their successors in regard to the territories which they conquered.
A similar series of excellent teachings on practical wisdom and the blessings of a virtuous life, only of a severer and more uncompromising character, is contained in the Sa`adatnama; and, judging from the extreme bitterness of tone manifested in the "reproaches of kings and emirs," we should be inclined to consider it a protest against the vile aspersions poured out upon Nasir's moral and religious attitude during those persecutions which drove him at last to Yumgan.
The madrasa libraries, some of which were very rich, have been scattered and lost, or confiscated by the emirs, or have perished in conflagrations.
In that year both provinces were subdued, their emirs deposed, and letters of appointment given to new emirs, who undertook to rule in accordance with the requirements of humanity, to abolish slave-raiding and slave dealing, and to acknowledge the sovereignty of Great Britain.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
These conditions were that all rights of conquest acquired by the Fulani throughout Northern Nigeria passed to Great Britain, that for the future every sultan and emir and principal officer of state should be appointed by Great Britain, that the emirs and chiefs so appointed should obey the laws of the British government, that they should no longer buy and sell slaves, nor enslave people, that they should import no firearms, except flint-locks, that they should enforce no sentences in their courts of law which were contrary to humanity, and that the British government should in future hold rights in land and taxation.
In the first instance, as following upon conquest or potential conquest, the Fulani emirs who were appointed by government to each of the great native states were installed under a letter of appointment in which (in addition to rights of legislation, taxation and other powers inherent in suzerainty) the ultimate title to all land was transferred from the Fulani dynasty and vested in the British.
In the Mahommedan states the native system of administration remains intact, and is carried on under British supervision by native emirs and officials.
A powerful fleet was built up under several " admirals," or emirs," of whom the greatest was George of Antioch, formerly in the service of the Moslem prince of El Mehdia.
The Nigerian emirs acquired, however, an evil reputation during the 19th century as slave raiders.
A certain Baridi, who had carved out for himself a principality in the province of Basra, marched against Bagdad and made himself master of the capital, but was soon driven out by the Dailamite general 1 See Defremery, Memoire sur les Emirs al-Omara (Paris, 1848).
The Fula portion of this province, held like the other Hausa states under a feudal system of large landowners or fief-holders, has been organized and assessed for taxation on the system accepted by the emirs throughout the protectorate, and the populations are working harmoniously under British rule.
In most places they continued the system of government which had grown up under the Habe, the chiefs or emirs of the various states being, however, tributary to Dan Fodio.
All the other Fula emirs were dependent on these two sultanates.
The emir of Gando, treated on the same terms as the emirs of Kano and Sokoto, proved less loyal to his oath of allegiance and had to be deposed.