But the circumnavigation of the lake by Gessi Pasha (1876), and by Emin Pasha in 1884, showed that Baker had been deceived as to the size of the lake.
Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pasha im Herzen von Afrika (Berlin, 1894); Brix Foerster, Deutsch-Ostafrika; Geographie and Geschichte (Leipzig, 1890); Oscar Baumann, InDeutsch-Ostafrikawahrenddes Aufstands (Vienna, 1890), Usambara and seine Nachbargebiete (Berlin, 1891), and Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle (Berlin, 1894).
General Gordon, who succeeded Baker, and who had Dr Emin Bey (afterwards Emin Pasha) as lieutenant, attempted through Colonel Charles Chaille Long, in 1874, not only to annex Unyoro but also Buganda to the Egyptian dominions, and thoroughly established Egyptian control on Albert Nyanza.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
Returning three months later, he found that Dr Karl Peters, a German in command of an " Emin Pasha Relief " expedition, had passed through his camp, read his letters, and, acting on the information thus obtained, had marched to Buganda, arriving in February 1890, where with the aid of Lourdel he French and concluded a treaty which was kept secret from British the British party, who repudiated it.
Seeing that the situation in Buganda was impossible unless they had a strong central force, which the company could not provide, Lugard and Williams had formed the idea of enlisting the Sudanese who had been left by Emin and Stanley at the south end of the Albert Lake.
Continent (1878) and In Darkest Africa (1890); Sir Richard Burton, Lake Regions of Central Africa (1860); Sir Samuel Baker, Albert Nyanza (1866); Emin Pasha, Journals (1886 edition); C. Chaille Long, Central Africa.
Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (1894); Sir Harry Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate (1902); and The Nile Quest (1903); A.
Egyptian authority ceased altogether with the withdrawal of Emin Pasha in 1888, but not long afterwards British influence began to be felt in the country.
Its importance for the history of religion and mythology is, in truth, very considerable, a fact which it is the great merit of Emin 7 and Dulaurier S to have first pointed out.
That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in open rebellion, except the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own.
Equatoria.In the Equatorial Province, which extended from the Albert Nyanza to Lado, Emin Bey, who had a force of 1300 Egyptian troops and 3000 irregulars, distributed aniong many stations, held out, hoping for reinforcdments.
In March f885, however, Amadi fell to the dervishes, and on the 18th of April Karamalla arrived near Lado, the capital, and sent to inform Emin of the fall of Khartum.
Emin and Captain Casati, an Italian, moved south to Wadelai, giving up the northern posts, and opened friendly relations with Kabarega, king of tlnyoro.
His troops were in a mutinous state, wishing to go north rather than south, as Emin had ordered them to do, and unsuccessfully endeavoured to carry him with them by force.
Stanley, which went to his rescue by way of the Congo in 1887, and after encountering incredible dangers and experiencing innumerable sufferings, met with Emin and Casati at Nsabh, on the Albert Nyanza, on the 29th of April 1888.
Stanley went back in May to pick up his belated rearguard,leaving Mounteney Jephson and a small escort to accompany Emin round his province.
The southern garrisons decided to go with Emin, but the troops at Labore mutinied, and a general revolt broke out, headed by Fadl-elMaula, governor of Fabbo.
On arriving at Dufile in August 1888, Emin and Jephson were made prisoners by the Egyptian mutineers.
In October Omar-Saleh, the Mahdist commander, took Rejaf and sent messengers to Dufile to summon Emin to surrender; but on the 15th of November the mutineers released both Emin and Jephson, who returned to Lake Albert with some 600 refugees, and joined Stanley in February 1889.
EMIN PASHA [EDUARD SCHNITZER] (1840-1892), German traveller, administrator and naturalist, was the son of Ludwig Schnitzer, a merchant of Oppeln in Silesia, and was born in Oppeln on the 28th of March 1840.
This came to him in the following year, when General Charles George Gordon, who had recently succeeded Sir Samuel Baker as governor of the equatorial provinces of Egypt, invited Schnitzer, who was now known as "Emin Effendi," to join him at Lado on the upper Nile.
Although nominally Gordon's medical officer, Emin was soon entrusted with political missions of some importance to Uganda and Unyoro.
In these he acquitted himself so well that when, in 1878, Gordon's successor at Lado was deprived of his office on account of malpractices (Gordon himself having been made governor-general of the Sudan), Emin was chosen to fill the post of governor of the Equatorial Province (i.e.
He proved an energetic and enterprising governor; indeed, his enterprise on more than one occasion brought him into conflict with Gordon, who eventually decided to remove Emin to Suakin.
The next three or four years were employed by Emin in various journeys through his province, and in the initiation of schemes for its development, until in 1882, on his return from a visit to Khartum, he became aware that the Mandist rising, which had originated in Kordofan, was spreading southward.
Emin (who about this time was raised to the rank of pasha) had some thoughts of a retreat to Zanzibar, but decided to remain where he was and endeavour to hold his own.
He hoped, however, that the presence of Stanley's force, when it came, would strengthen his position; but the condition of the relieving party, when it arrived in April 1888, did not seem to Emin to promise this.
Stanley's proposal to Emin, as stated in the latter's diary, was that Emin should either remain as governor-general on behalf of the king of the Belgians, or establish himself on Victoria Nyanza on behalf of a group of English merchants who wished to start an enterprise in Africa on the model of the East India Company.
After much hesitation, and prompted by a growing disaffection amongst the natives (owing, as he maintained, to his loss of prestige after the arrival of Stanley's force), Emin decided to accompany Stanley to the coast, where the expedition arrived in December 1889.
Unfortunately, on the evening of a reception dinner given in his honour, Emin met with an accident which resulted in fracture of the skull.
Preparations for a new expedition into the interior were set on foot, and meanwhile Emin was honoured in various ways by learned societies in Germany and elsewhere.
For a time things went well enough with the expedition; Emin occupied the important town of Tabora on the route from the coast to Tanganyika and established the post of Bukoba on Victoria Nyanza, but by degrees ill-fortune clouded its prospects.
Difficulties on the route; dissensions between Emin and the authorities in German East Africa, and misunderstandings on the part of both; epidemics of disease in Emin's force, followed by a growing spirit of mutiny among his native followers; an illness of a painful nature which attacked him - all these gradually undermined Emin's courage, and his diaries at the close of 1891 reflect a gloomy and almost hopeless spirit.
Emin remained behind with the sick, and with a very reduced following left the lake district in March 1892 for the Congo river.
These gentry were incensed against Emin for the energetic way in which he had dealt with their comrades while in German territory, and against Europeans generally by the campaign for their suppression begun by the Congo State.
At the instigation of one of these Arabs Emin was murdered on the 23rd or 24th of October 1892 at Kinena, a place about 80 m.
See Emin Pasha, his Life and Work, by Georg Schweitzer, with introduction by R.
Felkin (2 vols., London, 1898); Emin Pasha in Central Africa (London, 1888), a collection of Emin's papers contributed to scientific journals; and Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin, 1894), by Dr Franz Stuhlmann.
Casati (1838-1902), an Italian officer who spent several years with Emin, and accompanied him and Stanley to the coast, narrated his experiences in Dieci anni in Equatoria (English edition, Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha, London, 1891).
Corner Emin Pasha Gulf pushes southward.
In 1889 Stanley further explored the lake, discovering Emin Pasha Gulf, the entrance to which is masked by several islands.
(London, 1893); Franz Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pasha, &c. (Berlin, 1894); Paul Kollmann, The Victoria Nyanza (English translation; London, 1899); E.
Here for some time Emin Pasha had his headquarters, evacuating the place in December 1888.