In the hope of rekindling the civil war a body of emigres sailed under cover of the British fleet and landed on the peninsula of Quiberon.
For the emigres) as well as it suited the revolutionary government, and no serious attempt was made by the royal family to ascertain the truth, though they paid none of the tributes to the memory of the dead king which might reasonably have been expected, had they been convinced of his death.
But he knew also that neighbouring nations looked with unquiet eyes on the progress of affairs in France, that they feared the influence of the Revolution on their own peoples, and that foreign monarchs were being prayed by the French emigres to interfere on behalf of the French monarchy.
Accused of assisting the king's flight, of supplying emigres with funds, and of encouraging the resistance of the royal troops on the 10th of August 1792, she was condemned to death, and executed on the 10th of May 1794.
He presented a measure in favour of full liberty for the press, which at that time was almost unanimously reactionary, protested against the outlawry of returned emigres, spoke in favour of the deported priests and attacked the Directory.
His last political achievement was in July 1795, when he was present with Hoche at the destruction of the army of the emigres at Quiberon, and ordered the executions which followed.
It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.
To civil war she was consistently opposed, and never ceased to dissociate herself from the plans of the emigres, but here again her very position made her an enemy of the republic. In any case, all her actions had as their aim - firstly, the safeguarding of the monarchy and the king's position, and later, when she saw this to be impossible, that of securing the safety of her husband and her son.
The French foreign minister, Delessart, believed that he would checkmate all the efforts of the emigres at the continental courts provided that he could confirm Pitt in his intention of keeping England neutral.
Thanks to the efforts of Daunou and others his name was removed from the list of emigres, and he set sail for Europe in November 1795.
As regards French affairs, Talleyrand used his influence to help on the repeal of the vexatious laws against emigres, nonjuring priests, and the royalists of the west.
He had a decree of death passed against the emigres who did not return to France, and against anyone who should demand the re-establishment of the monarchy.
At the Revolution he fought with the army of the emigres in Liege.
The emigres then began to throw in their lot with the Vendeans.
The Convention took measures against the emigres and the refractory priests.
His erasure from the list of emigres, which he had failed to secure from Napoleon, was accorded on the request of the Russian government, and in 1803 he became governor of Odessa.
Though the bulk of his confiscated estates were lost beyond recall, he did not share the resentment of the mass of the returned emigres, from whom and their intrigues he had held aloof during his exile, and was far from sharing their delusions as to the possibility of undoing the work of the Revolution.
It was he who proposed the law sequestrating the property of the emigres, and he took an important part in the emeute of the 10th of June 1792 and in the revolution of the 10th of August of the same year.
In July 1789 he left France, became leader of the emigres, and visited several of the courts of Europe in the interest of the royalist cause.
The emigres were awarded a milliard as compensation for their confiscated lands; and Gallicans and Liberals alike were offended by measures which threw increased power into the hands of the Jesuits and Ultramontanes.
During the revolutionary period he left the country and served in the army of the emigres and later in that of Austria.
Here his conduct was anything but diplomatic. He at once announced himself as the protector of the extreme Jacobins in Rome, demanded the expulsion of the French emigres who had taken refuge there, including the "demoiselles Capet," and ordered the fleur-de-lys on the escutcheon of the French embassy to be replaced by a picture of Liberty painted by a French art student.
Towards the further development of events in France, therefore, Leopold assumed at first a studiously moderate attitude; but his refusal to respond to the demand of the French government for the dispersal of the corps of emigres assembled under the protection of the German princes on the frontier of France, and the insistence on the rights of princes dispossessed in Alsace and Lorraine, precipitated the crisis.
In language sometimes turgid, but nearly always of pure and powerful eloquence, he worked at the theme of the emigres, as it developed into that of the counter-revolution; and in his occasional appearances in the tribune, as well as in the project of an address to the French people which he presented to the Assembly on the 27th of December 1791, he shook the heart of France, and, especially by his call to arms on the 18th of January, shaped the policy which culminated in the declaration of war against the king of Bohemia and Hungary on the 10th of April.
De Closmadeux, Quiberon (1795), Emigres et Chouans, commissions militaires, interrogations et jugements (Paris, 1898), the only authority on the celebrated affair of Quiberon; E.
At the outbreak of the French Revolution, he was stationed at Valenciennes, where he contrived for a time to keep order, and facilitated the escape of the French emigres by way of Namur; but, in 1790, he hastened back to Paris to assist the king.
De Serre had been Royalist emigres during the revolutionary and imperial epoch.
The Left had three objects of enmity: first, the king, the queen and the royal family; secondly, the emigres; and thirdly, the clergy.
In October Leopold ordered the dispersion of the emigres who had mustered in arms in the Austrian Netherlands.
His concessions to the reactionary and clerical party of the emigres, headed by the comte d'Artois and the duchesse d'Angouleme, aroused suspicions of his loyalty to the constitution, the creation of his Maison militaire alienated the army, and the constant presence of Blacas made the formation of a united ministry impossible.
(ii.) Les Emigres et la seconde coalition (1886), (iii.) Coblenz,1789-1793 (1890).
The court, on its side, showed little sign of a conciliatory spirit, though, realizing itsdanger, it attempted to restrain the foolish violence of the emigres, i.e.
The names on the list of emigres at the close of the Terror were about 150,000.
All the property of those condemned to death and of emigres was confiscated.
Worshippers crowded to the churches; the emigres returned by thousands; and Anti-Jacobin outbreaks, followed by massacre, took place in the south.
The constitutional party in the legislature desired a toleration of the nonjuring clergy, the repeal of the laws against the relatives of the émigrés, and some merciful discrimination toward the émigrés themselves.
In April 1802 he procured the passing of a senatus consultum granting increased facilities for the return of the emigres; with few exceptions they were allowed to return, provided that it was before the 23rd of September 1802, and, after swearing to obey the new constitution, they entered into possession of their lands which had not been alienated; but barriers were raised against the recovery of their confiscated lands.
He is one of the genuine emigres, the good ones.