Apomorphine is essentially a muscle poison, but owing to the fact that minute 'doses stimulate the vomiting centre and cause emesis before any other symptoms are observable, its emetic action is the most prominent effect in man.
In man its chief effect is its emetic action, which seems to be due entirely to local irritation of the stomach.
The Poisons and Pharmacy Act of 1908 extended the schedule of poisons instituted by the act of 1868, and it now includes arsenic, aconite, aconitine and their preparations; all poisonous vegetable alkaloids, and their salts and poisonous derivatives; atropine and its salts and their preparations; belladonna and all preparations or admixtures (except belladonna plasters) containing 0.1% or more of belladonna alkaloid; cantharides and its poisonous derivatives; any preparation or admixture of coca-leaves containing 0.1% or more of coca alkaloids; corrosive sublimate; cyanide of potassium and all poisonous cyanides and their preparations; tartar emetic, nux vomica, and all preparations or admixtures containing 0.2% or more of strychnine; opium and all preparations and admixtures containing 1% or more of morphine; picro-toxine; prussic acid and all preparations and admixtures containing o i% or more of prussic acid; savin and its oil, and all preparations or admixtures containing savin or its oil.
The chief use of hard soap is in enemata, and as a suppository in children suffering from constipation; it also forms the basis of many pills; given in warm water it forms a ready emetic in cases of poisoning.
The treatment is to empty the stomach by tube or by a non-depressant emetic. The physiological antidotes are atropine and digitalin or strophanthin, which should be injected subcutaneously in maximal doses.
The treatment is to wash out the stomach or give such an emetic as apomorphine, and, when the stomach has been emptied, to administer demulcents such as white of egg or mucilage.
The sulphate is an excellent emetic in cases of poisoning, acting rapidly and without much nausea or depression.
- Sodium chloride is occasionally used in warm water as an emetic, and injections of it into the rectum as a treatment for thread worms. A o 9% solution forms what is termed normal saline solution, which is frequently injected into the tissues in cases of collapse, haemorrhage and diarrhoea.
On the other hand, recovery has taken place after 5 and to and even 20 grains have been swallowed, but in the latter case an emetic was at once administered.
The treatment of strychnine poisoning is to immediately evacuate the stomach with a stomach-pump or emetic, chloroform being administered to allay the spasms. If the patient can swallow, draughts of water containing tannic acid may be given.
The bulbs are large and orbicular, and have a blackish coat; they, as well as the flowers, are reputed to be emetic in properties.
Frequently this is sufficient; but if the stomach refuses to eject its objectionable contents, we may either give an emetic or wash it out by means of a stomach-pump or siphon.
The corresponding hydroxide, orthoantimonious acid, Sb(OH) 31 can be obtained in a somewhat impure form by precipitating tartar emetic with dilute sulphuric acid; or bet::er by decomposing antimonyl tartaric acid with sulphuric acid and drying the precipitated white powder at too° C. Antimony tetroxide is formed by strongly heating either the trioxide or pentoxide.
On precipitating antimony trichloride or tartar emetic in acid solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, an orange-red precipitate of the hydrated sulphide is obtained, which turns black on being heated to 200° C The trisulphide heated in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic state; it burns in air forming the tetroxide, and is soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, in solutions of the caustic alkalis, and in alkaline sulphides.
Metallic antimony was utilized to make goblets in which wine was allowed to stand so as to acquire emetic properties, and "everlasting" pills of the metal, supposed to act by contact merely, were administered and recovered for future use after they had fulfilled their purpose.
Tartar emetic (antimony tartrate) when swallowed, acts directly on the wall of the stomach, producing vomiting, and after absorption continues this effect by its action on the medulla.
Often it relieves vomiting, though in a few persons it may cause vomiting, but in far less degree than apomorphine, which is a powerful emetic. Opium has a more marked diaphoretic action than morphine, and is much less certain as a hypnotic and analgesic. There are a few therapeutic indications for the use of opium rather than morphine, but they are far less important than those which make the opposite demand.
For this purpose the best emetic is apomorphine, which may be injected subcutaneously in a dose of about one-tenth of a grain.
Zeus grew up, administered an emetic to Cronus (some say Metis did this), and had the satisfaction of seeing all his brothers and sisters disgorged alive.
As regards treatment, the stomach must be washed out with warm water by means of a soft rubber tube, an emetic being also administered.
But apomorphine is not always to be obtained, and even if it be administered it may fail, since the gastric wall is often paralysed in opium poisoning, so that no emetic can act.
In medicine copper sulphate was employed as an emetic, but its employment for this purpose is now very rare, as it is exceedingly depressant, and if it fails to act, may seriously damage the gastric mucous membrane.
Martin Debreczeni was chiefly famed for his Kiovi csata (Battle of Kieff), published at Pest in 1854 after his death by Count Emetic Miko.