Domestic afflictions combined with numerous and painful infirmities to embitter his old age.
The brutal treatment he had experienced in boyhood under the orders of Adil Shah, and the opprobrious name of eunuch with which be was taunted by his enemies, no doubt contributed to embitter his nature.
The state suffered severely during the War of Independence, the numbers and influence of the Loyalists serving to embitter the conflict.
He received an enthusiastic welcome in both capitals, but the visit to Vienna was never returned in Rome, for Francis Joseph as a Catholic sovereign feared to offend the pope, a circumstance which served to embitter Austro-Italian relations.
While his wife's influence could not increase the latter, it was successfully exerted to foment and embitter the former.
But the inevitable opposition of the nobility to this policy was not mitigated by the fact that it was carried out by a churchman; the result was to embitter the antagonism of the secular party to the church and to concentrate it upon Wolsey's head.
Under more favourable conditions Louis would have gained a name for kindness and philanthropy, proofs of which did indeed appear during his reign in Holland and gained him the esteem of his subjects; but his morbid sensitiveness served to embitter his relations both of a domestic and of,'a political nature and to sour his own disposition.