The War of 1812, with the Embargo Acts (1807-1813), which were so destructive of New England's commerce, thoroughly aroused the Federalist leaders in this part of the country against the National government as administered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the British were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the National government promised no protection, the legislature of Massachusetts invited the other New England states to join with her in sending delegates to a convention which should meet at Hartford to consider their grievances, means of preserving their resources, measures of protection against the British, and the advisability of taking measures to bring about a convention of delegates from all the United States for the purpose of revising the Federal constitution.
Within five hours the Senate had passed the Embargo Bill and sent it to the House.
New York, whose growing shipping interests had suffered by the Embargo of 1807, was as a commercial state opposed to the war.
The non-importation sentiment preceding the War of Independence fostered home manufactures considerably, and the Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts before the war of 1812, as well as that war itself (despite the subsequent glut of British goods) had a much greater effect; for they mark the introduction of the factory system, which by 1830 was firmly established in the textile industry and was rapidly transforming other industries.
An embargo on trade with Flanders, voted in 1358 by a general assembly, resulted by 1360 in the full restoration of German privileges in Flanders, but reduced the counter at Bruges to an executive organ of a united town policy.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
It is possible to regard the embargo policy dispassionately as an interesting illustration of Jefferson's love of peace.
An even more forcible speech, delivered later in the same session, in support of a bill for repeal - ing the embargo and non-importation acts, marked him as one of the foremost men in Congress.
In 1915 he was sponsor in the Senate for the seamen's bill providing for better working conditions and increase of life-saving equipment on board ship. He favoured, in 1916, an embargo on the shipment of arms from America, but supported armed intervention in Mexico.
The sworn foe of strong government, he was compelled, in pursuance of Jefferson's policy, to put into execution the Embargo and other radical and stringent measures.
Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson, having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison, and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its difficulties.
At the conclusion of its work it recommended greater military control for each of the several states and that the Federal constitution be so amended that representatives and direct taxes should be apportioned among the several states " according to their respective numbers of free persons," that no new state should be admitted to the Union without the concurrence of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress, that Congress should not have the power to lay an embargo for more than sixty days, that the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of both Houses of Congress should be necessary to pass an act " to interdict the commercial intercourse between the United States and any foreign nation or the dependencies thereof " or to declare war against any foreign nation except in case of actual invasion, that " no person who shall hereafter be naturalized shall be eligible as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives of the United States, nor capable of holding any civil office under the authority of the United States," and that " the same person shall not be elected president of the United States a second time; nor shall the president be elected from the same state two terms in succession."
He now laid an embargo upon Megara by which the Megarians were forbidden on pain of death to pursue trading operations with any part of the Athenian Empire.
Great Britain retaliated by laying an embargo on the vessels of the three neutral powers, and by sending a considerable fleet to the Baltic under the command of Parker and Nelson.
It was a notorious place for smuggling under the Embargo Acts of 1807 and 1808.
Radetzky, not satisfied with this, laid an embargo on the property of many Lombard emigrants who had settled in Piedmont and become naturalized, accusing them of complicity.
When President Jefferson, and after him President Madison, attempted to secure redress for these rnjuries by the imposition of an embargo on American vessels, the West Indian trade was temporarily ruined, the war of 181215 with Great Britain contributing to the same end.
One of the earliest acts of the new ministry was to lay an embargo upon corn, which was thought necessary in order to prevent a dearth resulting from the unprecedentedly bad harvest of 1766.
The embargo and non-intercourse laws from 1807 to 1812 were a severe blow to Maine's shipping, and in the War of 1812 Eastport, Castine, Hampden, Bangor and Machias fell into the hands of the British.
The Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 14J7, its later war and embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its fellows to secure a landtrade outside the sphere of Hanseatic influence.
Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.
It was Boston commerce that was most sorely hurt by the embargo and non-importation policy of President Jefferson.
When news of the embargo of the port at Boston arrived at New Haven, a Committee of Correspondence was at once formed; and in the War of Independence the people enthusiastically supported the American cause.
In December 1807 he warmly seconded Jefferson's suggestion of an embargo and vigorously urged instant action, saying: "The president has recommended the measure on his high responsibility.
This outrageous demand was followed by three others - that the Athenians should (I) withdraw from Potidaea, (2) restore autonomy to Aegina, and (3) withdraw the embargo on Megarian commerce.