The whole country has thus been divided into a series of oblongs, surrounded by embankments on three sides and by the desert slopes on the fourth.
Maximum, grows in wet sandy declivities by railway embankments or streams, &c., and is remarkable for its beauty, due to the abundance of its elegant branches and the alternately green and white appearance of the stem.
Embankments 20 to 24 ft.
On the one hand he may make the line follow the natural inequalities of the ground as nearly as may be, avoiding the elevations and depressions by curves; or on the other he may aim at making it as nearly straight and level as possible by taking it through the elevations in cuttings or tunnels and across the depressions on embankments or bridges.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
At the present time the preservation of the embankments about the point of bifurcation demands the constant care of the Bagdad government.
An endeavour is made so to plan the works of a railway that the quantity of earth excavated in cuttings shall be equal to the quantity required for the embankments; but this is not always practicable, and it is sometimes advantageous to obtain the earth from some source close to the embankment rather than incur the expense of hauling it from a distant cutting.
For conveying small streams through embankments, channels or culverts are constructed in brickwork or masonry.
In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
As to require at places to be protected by embankments against inundations.
The natural process of sedimentation assisted the gradual artificial drainage of the marshes by means of embankments confining the river.
The Thames follows a devious course through London, and the fine embankments on its north side, nowhere continuing uninterruptedly for more than 2 m., do not form important thoroughfares, with the exception of the Victoria Embankment.
Below these the grandest of the embankments extends to the City at Blackfriars.
Thus, in 1902by no means an abnormal yearstatistics show the following disasters owing to typhoons: casualties to human life, 3639; ships and boats lost, 3244; buildings destroyed wholly or partially, 695,062; land inundated, 1,071,575 acres; roads destroyed, 1236 m.; bridges washed away, 13, 685; embankments broken, 705 m.; crops damaged, 8,712,655 bushels.
The lines are single, for the most part; and as the embankments, the cuttings, the culverts and the bridge-piers have not been constructed for a double line, any change now would be very costly.
The Bhutias lay out their fields in a series of terraces cut out of the sides of the hills; each terrace is riveted and supported by stone embankments, sometimes 20 ft.
These artificial lakes are usually formed by throwing embankments across the lower extremities of valleys, and thus arresting and accumulating the waters flowing through them.
Along the banks of the Thames the coast is generally low and marshy, embankments being in several places necessary to prevent inundation.
By degrees the bed rises, and the people build embankments to prevent the river from overflowing.
As the bed rises the embankments must be raised too, until the stream is flowing many feet above the level of the surrounding country.
Many hundred acres of land have been reclaimed from the sea here and along the coast of the bay; there are costly embankments and good harbourage.
Low embankments had originally been built on west, east and south, the north boundary being formed by the natural slope of the hill.
The river was enclosed between stone embankments; sewerage and pure water were supplied, gas and electric light installed; and horse or electric tramways laid down in the principal thoroughfares, which were paved with granite or wood.
This country is protected from inundation by immense embankments, so that almost the whole area is suitable for rice cultivation.
Since 1877 railway communication has been largely supplemented by steam-tramways, which either run along the main roads or across the country on special embankments, while one of them is ' The dates indicate the period of construction of the different sections.
The expense of forming canals, embankments and sluices for warping land is from Do to £20 an acre.
The embankments may be from 3 to 7 ft.
In width, a series of cross embankments have been constructed, abutting at the inner ends on those along the Nile, and at the outer ends on the ascending sides of the valley.
When the surface-water of a river is higher than the fields right and left, there is nothing easier than to breach the embankments and flood the fields - in fact, it may be more difficult to prevent their being flooded than to flood them - but in ordinary floods the Nile is never higher than all the bordering lands, and in years of feeble flood it is higher than none of them.
These towns are situated in a valley on the Hunter River, which is liable to sudden floods, to guard against which the river is protected by stone embankments at West Maitland, while there are flood-gates at East Maitland.
The town was formerly much exposed to avalanches and floods, which are now less frequent owing to the construction of embankments and replanting of the hillsides.
As the freshets begin to lessen and retire into the deeper channels, the currents form natural embankments on their edges, preventing the return of a small portion of water which is thus left stagnant on the sands, and exposed to the action of the sun's rays.
The lower course of the Tiber has been from the earliest ages subject to frequent and severe inundations; of more recent ones, those of 1598, 1870 and 1900 have been especially destructive, but since the year 1876 the municipality of Rome, assisted by the Italian Government, has taken steps to check, and possibly to prevent these calamities within the city by constructing embankments of stone, resting on caissons, for a total distance (counting in both sides of the river) of 6 miles.
It is seldom more than a few feet above the sealevel, while at places it is below it, and it has consequently to be defended by an extensive _ system of dykes or embankments resembling those of Holland.
The harbour works board, constituted in 1877, improved the river channel and the bar; made wharves and embankments; lighted the lower reaches of the river by electricity, so as to allow vessels to enter by night; and constructed a breakwater and counter-mole outside the bar of the river Nervion, between Santurce, Portugalete and the opposite headland at the village of Algorta, so as to secure deep anchorage and easy access to the river.
The river is embanked from Piacenza, and continuously from Cremona, the total length of the embankments exceeding 600 m.
The scene presents to a European eye a panorama of singular novelty and interest - rice fields covered with water to a great depth; the ears of grain floating on the surface; the stupendous embankments, which restrain without altogether preventing the excesses of the inundations; and peasants going out to their daily work with their cattle in canoes or on rafts.
Above ground, if the water level is to be higher than the natural boundary, the same puddle walls or cores are carried up to the required level, and are supported as they rise by embankments of earth on either side.
The embankments on either side of the puddle wall are merely to support the puddle and to keep it moist above the ground level when the reservoir is low.
The less permeable materials should be confined to the inner parts of the embankments; this is especially important in the case of the inner embankment in order that, when the water level falls, they may remain moist without becoming liable to slip. The inner slope should be protected from the action of waves by so-called " hand-pitching," consisting of roughlysquared stonework, bedded upon a layer of broken stone to prevent local disturbance of the embankment by action of the water between the joints of the larger stones.
There is no serious difficulty in so constructing walls of this kind as to be practically water-tight while they remain unbroken; but owing to the settlement of the earthen embankments and the changing level of saturation they are undoubtedly subject to irregular stresses which cannot be calculated, and under which, speaking generally, plastic materials are much safer.
In the mining districts of America, for example, where timber is cheap, rough stone embankments have been lined on the water face with timber to form the water-tight septum.
But like every pure theory the principles of conjugate pressures in earth may lead to danger if not applied with due consideration for the angle of repose of the material, the modifications brought about by the limited width of artificial embankments, the possible contraction away from the masonry, of clayey materials during dry weather for some feet in depth and the tendency of surface waters to produce scour between the wall and the embankment.
Both the Neuadd and the Fisher Tarn dams are largely dependent upon the support of earthen embankments with much economy and with perfectly satisfactory results.
Before he had reached the embankments that were being thrown up, he saw, in the light of the dull autumn evening, mounted men coming toward him.
In turn fixed to the sleepers by two iron spikes, half-round wooden cross sleepers being employed on embankments and stone blocks 20 in.
As embankments have to support the weight of heavy trains, they must be uniformly firm and well drained, and before the line is fully opened for traffic they must be allowed time to consolidate, a process which is helped by running construction or mineral trains over them.
Floods must be provided with channels of sufficient size to carry them safely past the mine openings, and intercepting ditches should be excavated for this purpose, and dams and embankments constructed to divert the flood waters.
When the ice breaks up in spring they always leave their embankments, and rove about until a little before the fall of the leaf, when they return to their old habitations, and lay in their winter stock of wood.
The town stands on a level plain so low as to render embankments necessary to prevent inundation.
For this system two syphons will be required near the head, regulating bridges under all the embankments, and an escape weir back into the river.
This steel septum was protected on either side by a thin wall of asphaltic concrete supported by rubble stone embankments, and owing to irregular settling of 'the embankments became greatly distorted, apparently, however, without causing leakage.
Elsewhere, a simple concrete or masonry wall or core has been used above as well as below ground, being carried up between embankments either of earth or rubble stone.
- When the earth-works of a line have been completed and the tops of the embankments and the bottoms of the cuttings brought to the level decided upon, the next step is to lay the permanent way, so-called probably in distinction to the temporary way used during construction.
Deep, depositing its mud, and thence at the end of the flood the almost clear water may either be run off directly into the receding river, or cuts may be made in the cross embankments, and it may be allowed to flow from one flat to another and ultimately into the river.