Hard on this came the recognition of the fact that freely charged positive and negative ions are always present in the atmosphere, and that a radioactive emanation can be collected.
In 1901 Elster and Geitel found that a radioactive emanation is present in the atmosphere.
For a wire exposed under the conditions observed by Elster and Geitel the emanation seems to be almost entirely derived from radium.
Bumstead (60) Finds That With Longer Exposure Of The Wire The Relative Importance Of The Thorium Emanation Increases.
With Three Hours' Exposure He Found The Thorium Emanation Only From 3 To 5% Of The Whole, But With 12 Hours' Exposure The Percentage Of Thorium Emanation Rose To About 15.
If this is true we should have q= an t, where q is the number of ions of one sign made in I cc. of air per second by the emanation, a the constant of recombination, and n the number of ions found simultaneously by, say, Ebert's apparatus.
In the circular form it constitutes a natural and even primitive use of the idea of a crown, modified by an equally simple idea of the emanation of light from the head of a superior being, or by the meteorological phenomenon of a halo.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
In the later system of emanation of Sankhya there is a more marked approach to a materialistic doctrine of evolution.
Its first emanation as plastic nature contains the original soul or deity out of which all individual souls issue.
The system of Plotinus, Zellar remarks, is not strictly speaking one of emanation, since there is no communication of the divine essence to the created world; yet it resembles emanation inasmuch as the genesis of the world is conceived as a necessary physical effect, and not as the result of volition.
In Proclus we find this conception of an emanation of the world out of the Deity, or the absolute, made more exact, the process being regarded as threefold-0) persistence of cause in effect, (2) the departure of effect from cause, and (3) the tendency of effect to revert to its cause.
Among the Gnostics we meet with the hypothesis of emanation, as, for example, in the curious cosmic theory of Valentinus.
A similar doctrine of emanation is to be found in the writings of Bernhard of Chartres, who conceives the process of the unfolding of the world as a movement in a circle from the most general to the individual, and from this back to the most general.
Elaborate doctrines of emanation, largely based on Neoplatonic ideas, are also propounded by some of the Arabic philosophers, as by Farabi and Avicenna.
In the later and developed form of the Kabbala, the origin of the world is represented as a gradually descending emanation of the lower out of the higher.
From the First Life proceeds as a principal emanation the "Second Life," Hayye Tinyane, generally called Yoshamin.
The next emanation after Yoshamin is "the messenger of life" (Manda d'hayye, literally yvC61s Tits wi s), the most important figure in the entire system, the mediator and redeemer, the Xbyos and the Christ of the Mandaeans, from whom, as already stated, they take their name.
(1) The World of Emanations, also called the Image and the Heavenly or Archetypal Man, is, as we have seen, a direct emanation from the En Soph.
The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.
The existence of evil in opposition to the perfect goodness of God, as thus explained, need not be attributed to God's agency, inasmuch as the whole emanation-process is governed by necessary - as it were mechanical - laws, which may be compared to those of the physical universe.
The doctrine of emanation is thus to be distinguished from the cosmogonic theory of Judaism and Christianity, which explains human existence as due to a single creative act of a moral agent.
The God of Judaism and Christianity is essentially a person in close personal relation to his creatures; emanation is the denial of personality both for God and for man.
The emanation theory is to be contrasted, on the other hand, with the theory of evolution.
They differ, however, fundamentally in this respect, that, whereas evolution regards the process as from the indeterminate lower towards the determinate higher, emanation regards it as from the highest to the indefinitely lower.
There is considerable superficial similarity between evolution and emanation, especially in their formal statements.
The doctrine of emanation also regards the world as a process of particularization.
The theory of emanation, which had its source in certain moral and religious ideas, aims first of all at explaining the origin of mental or spiritual existence as an effluence from the divine and absolute spirit.
By some it was developed into a complete philosophy of the world, in which matter itself is viewed as the lowest emanation from the absolute.
In certain theories known as doctrines of emanation, only mental existence is referred to the absolute source, while matter is viewed as eternal and distinct from the divine nature.
In this form the doctrine of emanation approaches certain forms of the evolution theory (see Evolution).
The doctrine of emanation is correctly described as of oriental origin.
Plato, whose philosophy was strongly opposed to the evolution theory, distinctly inclines to the emanation idea in his doctrine that each particular thing is what it is in virtue of a pre-existent idea, and that the particulars are the lowest in the scale of existence, at the head of, or above, which is the idea of the good.
It is, however, only in the last eclectic period of Greek philosophy that the emanation doctrine was definitely established in the doctrines, e.g.
Caesalpinus had his attention directed to the subject, and he speaks of a halitus or emanation from the male plants causing fertility in the female.
A still more remarkable parallel to the later Neoplatonism is afforded by the Christian Gnostics of Alexandria, especially Valentinus and the followers of Basilides.2 Like the Neoplatonists, the Basilidians believed, not in an emanation from the Godhead, but in a dynamic manifestation of its activity.
In addition, radium evolves an "emanation" which is an extraordinarily inert gas, recalling the "inactive" gases of the atmosphere.
The first procession or emanation, as above indicated, is the realm of ideas in the Platonic sense, the word or wisdom of God.
In the above acceptation of the term, the Neoplatonic doctrine of emanations from the supra-essential One, the fanciful emanation-doctrine of some of the Gnostics (the aeons of the Valentinian system might be mentioned), and the elaborate esoteric system of the Kabbalah, to which the two former in all probability largely contributed, are generally included under the head of theosophy.
The animal vigour and carnal enjoyment of Rubens, the refined Italianizing beauty of Vandyck, the mystery of light and gloom on Rembrandt's panels, the love of nature in Ruysdael, Cuyp and Van Hooghe, with their luminously misty skies, silvery daylight and broad expanse of landscape, the interest in common life displayed by Ter Borch, Van Steen, Douw, Ostade and Teniers, the instinct for the beauty of animals in Potter, the vast sea spaces of Vanderveldt, the grasp on reality, the acute intuition into character in portraits, the scientific study of the world and man, the robust sympathy with natural appetites, which distinguish the whole art of the Low Countries, are a direct emanation from the Renaissance.
Of a given nature to discover the form or true specific difference, or natureengendering nature (natura naturans) or source of emanation (for these are the terms which are nearest to a description of the thing), is the work and aim of human knowledge."' The questions, then, whose answers give the key to the whole Baconian philosophy, may be put briefly thus - What are N.
Process employed ritually in all religions and among all races, civilized or savage, partly as a mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the demons (Persian drug, Greek pes, Armenian dev) which are or cause those diseases; and partly as a means of introducing into things and persons a sacramental or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power.
Hereupon follows the first differentiation of primitive substance - the separation of force from matter, the emanation of the world from God.
In the rational creatures - man and the gods - Pneuma is manifested in a high degree of purity and intensity as an emanation from the world-soul, itself an emanation from the primary substance of purest ether - a spark of the celestial fire, or, more accurately, fiery breath, which is a mean between fire and air, characterized by vital warmth more than by dryness.
The relation of the soul of the universe to God is quite clear: it is an inherent property, a mode of His activity, an effluence or emanation from the fiery ether which surrounds the universe, penetrating and permeating it.
A theory sprang up which was supposed to explain the marvellous powers of the Buddhas by representing them as only the outward appearance, the reflection, as it were, or emanation, of ethereal Buddhas dwelling in the skies.
Edwards supposes in the nature of God an original disposition to an " emanation " of His being, and it is the excellency of this divine being, particularly in the elect, which is, in his view, the final cause and motive of the world.