Elster and H.
P. Elster and H.
Lenard, Elster and Geitel, and others have found the potential gradient negative near waterfalls, the influence sometimes extending to a considerable distance.
Elster and Geitel (35) have measured the charge carried by raindrops falling into an insulated vessel.
Elster and Geitel found the sign of the charge often fluctuate repeatedly during a single rain storm, but it seemed more often than not opposite to that of the simultaneous potential gradient.
This was confirmed by Elster and Geitel (7), whose form of dissipation apparatus has been employed in most recent work.
The Elster and Geitel apparatus is furnished with a cover, serving to protect the dissipator from the direct action of rain, wind or sunlight.
In 1901 Elster and Geitel found that a radioactive emanation is present in the atmosphere.
After two hours' exposure, it is wrapped round a frame supported in a given position relative to Elster and Geitel's dissipation apparatus, and the loss of charge is noted.
At Wolfenbtittel, a year's observations by Elster and Geitel (56) made A vary from 4 to 64, the mean being 20.
Similarly at Altjoch, Elster and Geitel (56) found A at the foot of a waterfall only about one-third of its normal value at a distance from the fall.
Annual and Diurnal Variations.-At Wolfenbi ttel, Elster and Geitel found A vary but little with the season.
This last result of course is favourable to Elster and Geitel's views as to the source of the emanation.
For a wire exposed under the conditions observed by Elster and Geitel the emanation seems to be almost entirely derived from radium.
St Elmo's Fire.-Luminous discharges from masts, lightning conductors, and other pointed objects are not very infrequent, especially during thunderstorms. On the Sonnblick, where the phenomenon is common, Elster and Geitel (87) have found St Elmo's fire to answer to a discharge sometimes of positive sometimes of negative electricity.
2 Elster (Beitrage) says that the poem is the work of two poets: the first part by a Thuringian wandering minstrel, the second - which differs in style and dialect - by a Bavarian official.
Elster, Beitrage zur Kritik des Lohengrin (Halle, 1884), and R.
In early times there dwelt in Thuringia, south of the river Unstrut, the Angli, who gave their name to the pagus Engili, and to the east, between the Saale and the Elster, the Warni (Werini, or Varini), whose name is seen in Werenofeld.
Napoleon prepared to throw the bulk of his force upon Schwarzenberg and massed his troops south-east of the town, whilst Schwarzenberg marched concentrically against him down the valley of the Elster and Pleisse, the mass of his troops on the right bank of the latter and a strong column under Giulay on the left working round to join Blucher on the north.
It took Blucher time to extricate his troops from the confusion into which the battle had thrown them, and the garrison of Leipzig and the troops left on the right bank of the Elster still resisted obstinately - hence no direct pursuit could be initiated and the French, still upwards of 10o,000 strong, marching rapidly, soon gained distance enough to be reformed.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
PLAUEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Weisse Elster, 60 m.
ZEITZ, a town of Germany, in the extreme south of the Prussian province of Saxony, pleasantly situated on a hill on the Weisse (White) Elster, 28 m.
KAMENZ, a town in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Black Elster, 21 m.
GERA, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of ReussSchleiz (called also Reuss younger line), situated in a valley on the banks of the White Elster, 45 m.
The Mulde, formed of two branches, is the second river of Saxony; others are the Black Elster, the White Elster, the Pleisse and the Spree.
The best known is at Bad Elster in the Vogtland.
It is navigable from Naumburg, too m., with the help of sluices, and is connected with the Elster near Leipzig by a canal.
Among its affluents are the Elster, Regnitz and Orla on the right bank, and the Ilm, Unstrut, Salza, Wipper and Bode on the left.
GREIZ, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Reuss-Greiz (Reuss the Elder), in a pleasant valley on the right bank of the White Elster, near the borders of Saxony, and 66 m.
In the earliest times Lower Lusatia reached from the Black Elster to the Spree; its inhabitants, the Lusitzi, were conquered by the German king, Henry the Fowler, and by the margrave Gero in the 10th century.
The principal rivers are the Spree with its tributaries, the Black Elster and the Neisse.
Physiographically Silesia, is roughly divided into a flat and a hilly portion by the so-called Silesian Langental, which begins on the south-east near the river Malapane, and extends across the province in a west-by-north direction to the Black Elster, following in part the valley of the Oder.
The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.
The spot, outside the Elster Gate, where Luther publicly burned the papal bull in 1520, is marked by an oak tree.
EISENBERG (Isenberg), a town of Germany, in the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on a plateau between the rivers Saale and Elster, 20 m.
The southern sides of this range are comparatively steep; on the north it slopes gently down to the plains of Leipzig, but is intersected by the deep valleys of the Elster and Mulde.
About the same time Sigeberht was defeated by the Avars, and though the latter soon withdrew from the Frankish frontiers, their course was followed by a movement of the Slays, who occupied the basin of the Elster and penetrated to that of the Main.
FINSTERWALDE, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Schackebach, a tributary of the Little Elster, 28 m.
The Saale flows through the east of the district and is joined by the Ilm, the Elster and the Unstrut.
This district lies in the basin of the Saale, its chief streams being the White (Weisse) Elster, the Weida and the Orla.
- Elster and Geitel Electroscope.
The chief rivers are the Weisse Elster and the Saale.