13) in which ElOhim is the term which is applied to departed spirits.
Elohim (God) instead of Yahweh.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
The fuller titles of the ark originate in the belief that it contained the "covenant" (berith) or "testimony" (`eduth), the technical terms for the Decalogue; primarily, however, it would seem to have been called "the ark of Yahweh" (or "Elohim"), or simply "the ark."
Xl., and here Jehovah is six times changed to Elohim, while the opposite change happens but once.
The Elohim psalms, then, have undergone a common editorial treatment, distinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter.
But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly, we see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Korah, Asaph).
This order can hardly be original, especially as the Davidic Elohim psalms have a separate subscription (Ps.
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
Is made up of two Elohim psalms (lvii.
Some of the later writers in the Old Testament employ the appellative Elohim, God, prevailingly or exclusively; a collection of Psalms (Ps.
" mighty "), for In; K Elohim, Ps.
In the later development of the religion of Israel, Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in earlier times Elohim (gods), bne 'Elohim, bne Elim (sons of gods, i.e.
7 In the earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally stated, so that the idea of " angel " in the modern sense does not occur, but we find the Mal'akh Yahweh, Angel of the Lord, or Mal'akh Elohim, Angel of God.
8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.
In the earlier literature the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim is almost the only mal'akh (" angel ") mentioned.
22 Similarly in Job the bne Elohim, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them Satan, still in his role of public prosecutor, the defendant being Job.
Above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act.
In old times, the bne Elohim and the seraphim are His court, and the angels are alike the court and the army of God; the cherubim are his throne-bearers.
4b-8 we read thus: - "At the time when Yahweh-Elohim l made earth and heaven, - earth was as yet without bushes, no herbage was as yet sprouting, because Yahweh-Elohim had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and no men were there to till the ground, but a stream 2 used to go up from the earth, and water all the face of the ground, - then Yahweh-Elohim formed the man of dust of the ground, 3 and blew into his nostrils breath of life, 4 and the man became a living being.
And Yahweh-Elohim planted a garden s in Eden, east ward; and there he put the man whom he had formed."
But the real meaning is not slight; the sexual distinction has been discovered, and a new sense of shame sends the human pair into the thickest shades, when Yahweh-Elohim walks abroad.
8, 18), and is led away by pride to equalize himself with Elohim (cp. xxviii.
Somewhat later than " J," another writer, commonly referred to as " E," from his preference for the name Elohim (" God ") rather than " Jehovah," living apparently in the northern kingdom, wrote down the traditions of the past as they were current in northern Israel, in a style resembling generally that of " J," but not quite as bright and vivid, and marked by small differences of expression and representation.
Moses had used different documents, and that of these the two chief were distinguished by their use of different divine names - Elohim and Yahweh; by the use of this clue he gave a detailed analysis of the passages belonging to the several documents.
Ilgen, the discoverer (1798) that there were two distinct documents in Genesis using the divine name Elohim, and consequently that there were three main sources in the books, not two, as Astruc and Eichhorn had conjectured; and J.
The ancient Jews were a striking exception; for though the frequent mention of ancestral graves on hilltops or in caves, and in connexion with sacred trees and pillars, and the resemblance of the "elohim" in Exod.
The story, however, has been combined with the somewhat different account of E, which doubtless covered the same ground, and also with that of P. According to the former, Elohim did not permit the Israelites to take the shorter route to Canaan by the Mediterranean coast, for fear of the Philistines, but led them southwards to the Red Sea, whither they were pursued by the Egyptians (xiii.
According to the former, Moses is instructed by God (Elohim) to sanctify the people against the third day (vv.
In this account the mountain is called "Sinai" throughout, and "Yahweh" appears instead of "Elohim" (rib, 18, 20 f.).
Along with this comes the doctrine of the angel of Yahweh, the angel of the covenant, the angel of the presence, in whom God manifests Himself, and who is sometimes identified with Yahweh or Elohim (Gen.
But Elohim came to Balaam by night and forbade him to go.
A second and still more influential embassy having been sent, Elohim again appeared by night, and this time permitted Balaam to go on condition that he said nothing but what Elohim bade him say.
With equal frankness Balaam replied that, though he had come now, he had no power to say anything but what Elohim might put into his mouth.
The former, on the other hand, has an enlightened conception of Elohim; the Deity, though grand, is a lifeless figure; several antique ideas are nevertheless preserved.
But in the later, he takes only one pair, and subsequently Elohim blesses Noah and makes a covenant never again to destroy all flesh by a flood.
Only on the assumption that the book of Genesis is a composite work is it possible to explain the duplication of events, the varying use of the divine names Yahweh and Elohim, the linguistic and stylistic differences, the internal intricacies of the subject matter, and the differing standpoints as regards tradition, chronology, morals and religion.'
Elohim is the name of the ruler of all.