Elohim (God) instead of Yahweh.
S5) that Elohim as a plural form for the name of the Hebrew deity " can hardly be understood otherwise than as a comprehensive expression for the multitude of gods embraced in the One God of Old Testament religion," in other words that it presupposes an original polytheism.
For (I) Elohim is also applied in Judges xi.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
13) in which ElOhim is the term which is applied to departed spirits.
23), that is, they are humanized, and the Elohim beings (including the Satan) in the prologue belong to a popular story, the figure of Satan being used by the author to account for Job's, calamities; in Tobit the "affable" Raphael is a clever man of the world.
The fuller titles of the ark originate in the belief that it contained the "covenant" (berith) or "testimony" (`eduth), the technical terms for the Decalogue; primarily, however, it would seem to have been called "the ark of Yahweh" (or "Elohim"), or simply "the ark."
- lxxxiii.) is distinguished from the rest of the Psalter by habitually avoiding the name Jehovah (the Lord) and using Elohim (God) instead, even in cases like Ps.
Xl., and here Jehovah is six times changed to Elohim, while the opposite change happens but once.
The Elohim psalms, then, have undergone a common editorial treatment, distinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter.
But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly, we see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Korah, Asaph).
This order can hardly be original, especially as the Davidic Elohim psalms have a separate subscription (Ps.
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
Is made up of two Elohim psalms (lvii.
Some of the later writers in the Old Testament employ the appellative Elohim, God, prevailingly or exclusively; a collection of Psalms (Ps.
Xlii.- lxxxiii.) was revised by an editor who changed the Jhvh of the authors into Elohim (see e.g.
2b, " and the spirit of God (Elohim) was hovering over the face of the waters," which, until we find some similar myth nearer home, is best illustrated and explained by a Polynesian myth (see Cheyne, Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel, ad loc.).
" mighty "), for In; K Elohim, Ps.
In the later development of the religion of Israel, Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in earlier times Elohim (gods), bne 'Elohim, bne Elim (sons of gods, i.e.
7 In the earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally stated, so that the idea of " angel " in the modern sense does not occur, but we find the Mal'akh Yahweh, Angel of the Lord, or Mal'akh Elohim, Angel of God.
8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.
In the earlier literature the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim is almost the only mal'akh (" angel ") mentioned.
22 Similarly in Job the bne Elohim, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them Satan, still in his role of public prosecutor, the defendant being Job.
It is true that the bne Elohim of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf.
Above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act.
Elohim is the name of the ruler of all.