Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.
Meantime in 1903 the then Eastern province of the Uganda Protectorate had been transferred to the adjoining East Africa Protectorate, the new eastern boundary being the west coast of Lake Rudolf, the river Turkwel, the eastern flanks of Mt Elgon, the Sio River, and a line running south from the mouth of the Sio across Victoria Nyanza to 1° S.
The Eastern province is abundantly watered near Victoria Nyanza and around Mt Elgon and the noble Debasien mountain (about 50 in.
Busoga and the western part of the Elgon district in this province have a regular West African climate - hot, moist and not over-healthy.
Mount Elgon (q.v.) just outside the Eastern province is one of the leading physical features of the Uganda and East Africa protectorates.
The mass of Elgon can be seen from the northeast coast of Victoria Nyanza, from near the main Nile stream, from the heights overlooking Lake Rudolf and from the Kikuyu escarpment.
In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
Busoga and the Elgon district the flora is very West African in character.
There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.
The upper regions of Mt Elgon, Mt Debasien and Mt Agoro are clothed with forests of conifers - juniper and yew - and witch-hazels (Trichocladus).
These early eruptions were followed by those of Kenya, Mawenzi, Elgon, Chibcharagnani, and these by the eruptions of Kibo, Longonot, Suswa and the Kyulu Mountains.
The languages spoken in the Uganda Protectorate belong to the following stocks: (1) Hamitic (Murle and Rendile of Lake Rudolf); (2) Masai (Bari, Elgumi, Turkana, Suk, &c.); (2a) Sabei, on the northern slopes of Elgon and on Mt Debasien; (2b) Nilotic (Acholi, Aluru, Gang, &c.); (3) Madi (spoken on the Nile between Aluru and Bari, really of West African affinities); (4) Bantu (Lu-ganda, Runyoro, Lu-konjo, Kuamba, Lihuku, the Masaba languages of west Elgon and Kavirondo, &c.); and lastly, the unclassified, isolated Lendu and Mbuba spoken by some of the pigmy-prognathous peoples.
There was probably no direct intercourse with Egypt by way of the Nile, owing to the lake-like marshes between Bor and Fashoda, but instead an overland traffic with Ethiopia (the Land of Punt) via Mt Elgon and the Rudolf regions.